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고등학교 음악교과서의 민요가창수업을 위한 가야금반주
- 고등학교 음악교과서의 민요가창수업을 위한 가야금반주
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- 교육대학원 음악교육전공
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 민요는 민중의 삶과 정서가 음악적으로 승화된 것으로서, 학생들로 하여금 우리 민족으로서의 삶과 정서를 자연스럽게 체득할 수 있게 하고 선조들의 문화를 경험할 수 있는 수단으로서 그 교육적 가치가 매우 높다. 그런데 교육현장에서는 일반적으로 우리의 전통음악인 민요를 서양악기인 피아노나 오르간에 의한 반주로 교육하고 있으며, 이와 같은 교육방법은 민요의 특성을 충분히 학생들에게 전달해주지 못하고 있다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 가야금을 피아노나 오르간의 대안으로 일선 교육현장에서 충분히 활용할 수 있는 대안으로 제시하면서, 일반 음악교사들이 가야금으로 민요를 가르칠 수 있도록 그 반주보를 제안함을 목표로 하였다.
본 연구의 방법은 대상민요를 선정하기 위하여 고등학교 8종 교과서에 수록된 민요의 빈도수를 5개 지역권으로 나누어 조사하였다. 이렇게 선정된 민요의 가야금 반주보를 만들기 위해, 현재 출판 중인 교본에서 민요의 가야금보를 찾아, 이를 교과서에 수록된 민요의 선율에 보완하여 실제 수업현장에서 사용할 수 있는 가야금 반주악보를 제시하였다. 5개 지역권에서 대상으로 선정된 민요는 경기지방의 "박연폭포", 남도지방의 "새타령", 동부지방의 "신고산타령". 서부지방의 "수심가" 및 제주지방의 "오돌또기"이다.
이 중 "박연폭포", "새타령", "신고산타령" 및 "오돌또기"는 교과서에 민요표준악보의 형태로 실려 있어 그 선율을 기본으로 삼아, 박재희와 황병주의 가야금보(새타령의 경우에는 박재희의 가야금보만을 기초로 하였다)에 나타난 가야금 선율과 특징적 연주법을 분석하여, 위 민요표준악보에 의한 노래를 부를 때 적합한 가야금 반주보로 재편하였다. 다만 "수심가"의 경우에는 교과서에 백대웅이 채보한 악보만이 제시되어 있었기 때문에 이를 기초로 하였으며, 또한 출판된 가야금보가 없어 위 가야금보의 특징들을 살려 가야금보를 만들었다.;The purpose of this research is to study the possible use of the kayageum as an accompanying instrument for Korean Folk Songs. The kayageum is a viable option as a musical instrument for accompaniment since it allows the accompanist to sing along as she plays, and it is capable of expressing the distinct characteristics of the Korean folk songs in their fullest measure.
In this study, to examine the relationship between the kayageum and the Korean folk melodies, the sample songs were carefully selected based on the number of occurrences of Korean folk songs in the 8 standard high school music textbooks, and other cases of kayageum accompanied singing were also considered. These research methods resulted in the production of real-life practical kayageum accompaniment scores, which can be readily used in classrooms. The details are as follows:
First, in a Gyeonggi folk melody, Bagyeonpokpo, with a scale of d′ e′ g′ a′ b′, its second tone, e′, is pitched more or less lower than its temperament counterpart, the fundamental tone, d′, needs to be somewhat vibrated, and the fifth tone d′ has a tendency to be slid down in glissando. Therefore, when being tuned, the dongjul or the fifth string and the chingjul or the tenth string need to be tuned lower than the temperament, the dangjul or the fourth string should be vibrated quickly. The long sustaining notes were divided into shorter notes so as not to lose the sense of rhythm, and at the beginning of every jangdan, a tone chung was sounded in order to create a bit.
Second, Susimga, a Seodo folk tune, is structured around d′ e′ g′ a′ c″. A perfect fifth is added on top of the fundamental tone, d′, which will then be vibrated intensively. The third tone, g′, is slightly raised from the temperament, which requires the instrument to be tuned with its jingjul or the sixth string pitched higher than the temperament. The ttangjul or the seventh string is to be played with vibratos. For sustaining notes, the pitch is to slide down in slight glissando shortly after hitting them. Susimga is replete with such sustaining notes and additional notes are inserted to articulate the rhythm. At the beginning of a jangdan, a chung is sounded with vigor, and a trailing tune is added to enrich the ending.
Third, Saetaryeong was chosen to represent the Namdo folk songs. Among its three principle tones d′, a′, and b′, the d′ is played with a strong vibration, the b′ is preceded by a breaking a′ tone, and the a′ is simply played flat. The strings are to be tuned to take advantage of its Namdo style. As such, the vibrating voices, cheongjul(first string), jingjul(sixth string), and jjingjul(ninth string) need to be pitched lower than usual so as not to produce a high-pitched sound during vibrations. The flat voices, heungjul(second string), jingjul(sixth string), and jjongjul(eleventh string), are tuned a little bit higher than the temperament. The breaking voices, dungjul(third string), ddangjul(seventh string), jjaengjul(twelveth string) are pitched down in order to produce an accurate pitch during breaking. Other niceties of kayageum accompaniment were sprinkled all over the song, Saetaryeong, to add to its Namdo touch. The melody was overlaid with the second melody line an octave lower in order to make it sound fuller, extended rests were inserted in the accompaniment to emphasize the tune and its lyrics, and ornamental sounds were adopted to mimic the sound of a bird.
Fourth, structured around a pentatonic scale with e′, a′, and c″ as its principle tones, a dongbu folk song, baennorae, has its e′ full and vibrating, its g′ tuned somewhat higher than the temperament, and its c″ played as if it was sliding down from b″. Therefore, it is necessary to tune the kayageum’s jijul or the eighth string to c″ instead of the usual b′, and, when played, it should be pushed down slightly and slid down in a glissando-like manner. Taking baennorae’s strong rhythm and brisk pace into consideration, a chung is sounded at the beginning of the jangdan to counterbalance the almost chaotic nature of its varied rhythmic styles, and a trailing tune is employed at the end of the jangdan to stress its sense of closure.
Lastly, the famous Jeju folk tune, Odolttogi, uses d′, e′, g′, a′, and b′, evenly distributed over the song. It bears similarity to Gyeonggi folk songs in that it lacks disjunct motions, its Jeju dialect lyrics give it a distinct flavor of sigimsae or ornamentation techniques, and the overall mood of the song is melancholy. The tuning should be also done in a similar manner as Gyeonggi folk songs’, but the dangjul is to be vibrated more rapidly than in Gyeonggi folk songs. Odolttogi, also has its jangdan start with a chung, and end with a trailing melody to accentuate its beginning and the end.
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