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韓國의 旣婚 勤勞女性의 福祉에 관한 硏究

Title
韓國의 旣婚 勤勞女性의 福祉에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study for the welfare of married working women : Especially for the married women workers in rubber factory telephone operators and female teachers in schools, in Korea
Authors
延興淑.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공일반사회교육분야
Keywords
부녀복지사업사회경제근로여성
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
지난 20年間 韓國의 經濟는 그 規模나 構造에 있어서, GNP의 成長, 수출의 증대, 國民生活水準의 向上을 비롯하여 2, 3次 産業이 增大한 産業構造의 變化등 대단한 發展을 經驗하였다. 그러한 過程은 女性들의 經濟活動 參與를 增大시켜 주었다. 그러나 經濟成長과 함께 分配의 不衡등이 따랐고, 社會福祉의 問題가 심각하게 擡頭된 것은 사실이다. 이제 1980年代를 社會開發實施의 期間으로 定하고 社會福祉로 向한 發展을 沮害하는 者般要因을 除去하고 生産的인 情神姿勢를 培養하고 人間能力을 最大限 開發하려는 즈음에, 過去 就業을 통하여 生産活動에 積極 參與해 온 勤勞女性의 福祉에 관하여 硏究를 試圖해 보는 것은 意味있는 일이라고 생각된다. 政府가 施行해 온 女性福祉事業은 要保護女性(淪落女性, 母子家庭), 勤勞女性 및 一般婦女者의 事業이 있어 왔다. 그러나 특히 旣婚勤勞女性의 福祉問題를 이 論文에서 關心의 對象으로 삼은 것은 지난 10餘年間 日本의 經驗이나 앞으로의 우리 經濟의 女性勞動 需要의 側面에서 볼 때 旣婚女性의 就業이 增大할 것이라는 예측하에 대단히 중요하게 다루어져야 할 問題라고 생각되었기 때문이다. 旣婚勤勞女性의 勞動參與와 관련된 問題들은 이미 硏究되어 왔으며 대체로 다음과 같이 指摘될 수가 있겠다. 첫째 旣婚勤勞女性은 家庭과 職場의 二重的인 役割로 酷使당하고 있다는 점에서 이들의 勞動을 輕減시킬 수 있는 社會的 制度와 福祉施設이 시급하다. 둘째, 法的으로는 同等한 待遇를 받도록 되어있고 女性을 위한 特別法이 制定되어 있음에도 불구하고 실제로는 잘 履行되지 못하고 있을 뿐만 아니라 旣婚女性들의 就業에 障碍가 되기까지 한다. 세째, 이처럼 二重勞動과 低賃金을 받고 있는 이들 旣婚勤勞女性으 福祉에 대한 要求事項을 調査硏究함이 요구된다. 이와 같은 問題를 지닌 旣婚勤勞女性들의 實態를 把握하기 위하여 旣婚勤勞女性이 주로 많이 있는 業種 중에서 고무會社女工員, 交換員, 敎員을 各各 30名씩 總90名을 對象으로 ① 응답자의 社會經濟的인 背景 ② 職場의 勤勞基準法上, 法的保護事項의 履行程度 ③ 家庭生活의 役割 分擔關係 ④ 家庭, 職場, 社會에 대한 希望事項 等에 對한 質問紙 調査를 實施하였다. 資料를 實數와 百分率로 整理한 後 分析한 結果에 따라 旣婚勤勞女性의 福祉向上을 위하여 다음과 같은 改善第을 提示하게 되었다. 첫째로, 旣婚勤勞女性의 昇進 또는 轉職의 要求에 適切한 職業訓練 機會 提供을 위한 職業訓練機關의 設立이 必要하다. 아울러 女性의 올바른 職業觀 形成을 위해서 義務敎育科程에 職業敎育 內容을 敎科書에 다루어야 한다고 보겠다. 둘째로, 旣婚勤勞女性의 就業時 가장 큰 問題解決을 위한 子女敎育을 家庭과 社會가 공동으로 擔當할 수 있도록 職場別, 地域別, 託兒所, 어린이 도서실, 운동장등의 施設提供이 시급하다고 본다. 세째로, 旣婚勤勞女性의 二重的 勞動을 輕感시킬 수 있는 時間制 勤務, 家事休暇制 等을 制度化하며, 반조리식품, 인스턴트식품을 개발하여 全家族이 쉽게 家事에 協助할 수 있도록 하는데 國家的인 次元의 關心과 배려가 요구되고 있다. 네째로, 旣婚勤勞女性間의 諸般 隔差및 一般社會에서의 偏見을 解消하기 위한 弘報活動으로 전시회, 바자회, 운동회, 교육 및 근로여성신문 등을 발간함이 유익하다고 보겠다. 다섯째, 勤勞女性을 위한 特別保護法이 實際로 잘 履行되게 하기 위해서 「女性差別신고센터」를 勤勞女性相談室에 設置하여 정당한 行政體制로 報告되어 시정될 수 있는 위원회 설치를 건의한다. 여섯째, 旣婚勤勞女性의 職場內 福祉施設의 改善 및 增設을 요구하며 特히 學校內에 女敎員 또는 敎員을 위한 特別福祉施設 設置法이 學校施設基準法에 구체적으로 다루어 져야 함을 提示한다. 일곱째, 交換員과 같은 特定業種에서 退職年令의 早期現象이 旣婚勤勞女性의 큰 問題點으로 등장하고 있음으로 이 分野의 多角的인 分析이 요구되는 연구를 거듭해 줄 것을 당부한다. 結論的으로 女性差別의 偏見을 解消하고 家庭內 役割을 온 家庭이 分擔하는 사회분위기 조성이 필요하다. 그리고 女性의 就業擴大와 法的 保護를 위한 國家的 次元의 調査와 硏究가 더 세밀히 될 수 있는 硏究機關의 機構擴張과 包括的인 婦女福祉 政策을 樹立할 수 있는 次元의 婦女行政部署의 設置가 요구된다.;For the past twenty years, the economy of Korea has experienced vast changes in size as well as in structure such as the growth of GNP, the exapansion of exports, the promotion of the living standard and the industrial structure with the secondary and the tertiary industries increased. Such process has enabled women to participate in the economic activities very actively. The unbalance of the distribution of wealth, however, followed economic growth and it is true that the problem of social welfare has become a prominent figure. In the meantime we fixed the 1980s as the periods of the execution of social development, and we are going to remove all kinds of factors that check its development toward welfare society. And also we are cultivating productive spiritual attitude and are developing the ability of mankind to the fullest extent. Therefore, it is meaningful to try to conduct researches in the welfare of the working women who have been participating in the productive activities through the past employment. The welfare projects for women which have been carried into effect by the government authorities are those for working women, for general housewives, and for women who are in need of help,-prostitutes, widows and mothers who have children only. In this article, the researcher is especially interested in the welfare problems of the married working women because it should be treated with importance under the presumption that the employment of the married women may be increased when considering the Japanese experience during the last ten years and the demand of women labor in Korea's economy. The researcher has already pointed out the problems connected with labor-participation of the married working women, and they may be summed up as follows : First, in terms of the fact that married working women are worked hard with the roles of a housewives and working Woman, it is urgent to have to have social systems and welfare facilities which can reduce their labor. Second, legally, women can be treated equally with men and there are special laws for women, but, in reality, they are not fully observed and even hinder the employment of the married women. Third, what are the claims for the welfare of the married women who are suffering from dual labor and low wages? In order to grasp the actual state of the married working women who have such problems, the researcher chose 30 rubber factory workers, 30 telephone operators and as many female teachers and asked them following questions through questionaire method. 1. Socio-economic background. 2. The degree of fulfilment of the legally protective items represented in the Labor Standard Law 3. The role allotment of the family life 4. Their hopes for family, employer and society. The researcher analyzed the data after arranging them in actual numbers and percentage and then, proposes the following policies for the welfare promotion of the married working women. In the first place, it is necessary for us to establish some vocational training institutes for women in order to give them opportunities of adequate vocation training for the promotion and the changes of occupation of the married working women. Besides, in order to give them a desirable vocation education and thus form correct vocation views, a wide change of the curriculum is needed. In the second place, for the purpose of solving the most important problems at the time of the employment of the women, that is, the education of their children, day nurseries both in workshop and in community, libraries for children, and playgrounds are to be built immediately. In the third place, the systems for working for hours and leaves for family affairs that can reduce the dual labor of the married women must be set up and semi-cooked food, instant food, and so forth must be improved and provided easily for all the family members to cooperate in performing family duties and it must be done in terms of the government dimension. In the fourth place, public relations for removing all sorts of differences among working women and the prejudices amidst the general society would be very helpful exhibitions, athletic meets, various education projects and the publication of the papers for working women. In the fifth place, to perform the protective laws for the working women, the researcher proposes to set up "Women Discrimination Reporting Center" in one corner of the consultation office and again proposes to institute a committee to correct discrimination problems through proper executive channels. In the sixth place, the researcher claims for improving an increasing more welfare facilities in their working places and, especially proposes to put the law for the extablishment of special welfare facilities for women teachers into the facilities standard law concretely. In the seventh place, the retirement age of the married working women such as telephone operators is lowered and it is matter of great importance. And so the researcher asks for the repitition of studies which require diversified analyses on this field. In conlclusion, it is necessary to promote the social atmosphere to dissolve the prejudices of women discrimination and for all the family members to share in the family role. The researcher hopes that the government authorities should examine and research more fully in order to enlarge women employment and establish an administrative organization for women's welfare policy.
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