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유아용 검사도구에 나타난 성역할 고정관념 분석

유아용 검사도구에 나타난 성역할 고정관념 분석
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교육대학원 유아교육전공
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
The purpose of this study is to grap the tendencies and phases of the test tools for young children used at preschools by selecting proper samples among test tools for young children used and analyzing the sex-role stereotype appeared on them. Moreover, this study aims at offering basic materials for having test tools for young children designed toward for young children to cultivate desirable sex-roles. Under these purposes, the research questions of this study are as follows. 1. What about the objects of the test tools for young children according to respective sexes? 2. What about the sex-proportion of characters appeared on pictures of the test tools for young children? 2-1. What about in the case of the sex of young children? 2-2. What about in the case of the sex of adults? 3. What about the characteristics of the characters appeared on the test tools for young children? 3-1. What about the aspects of activities and play materials according to the sex of young children? 3-2. What about the places of activities according to the sex of young children? 3-3. What about the occupation of the adult characters? 4. What about the sex-recognition appeared on the test tools for young children? 4-1. What about the unrighteous activities according to the sex of young children? 4-2. What about the hairstyle and costumes according of female character? The objects of this study's analysis are the 28 test tools for young children where the sex of the characters is certain and on which individual interviews with infants are possible, among the test tools that fine their places in the master's and doctor's theses related to young children. The tool used for this analysis was made through the researcher's modification and supplement on the basis of studies by Yoon Kyung Lee (1981), Hae Sook Jung, Ae Kyoung Yang, Heung Sook Kim (1995), Kyoung Soo Kim (1995), Joo Hee Kim (1998), and Jung Ran Cho (2002). The conclusions acquired from this study are as follows. First, there were more test tools for both sexes of young children, which were used for both of boys and girls together, than the test tools for one sex, which were used for boys or girls. Separated use of test tools can offer chances to have young children cultivate balanced sex-role stereotypes. Second, in the case of young characters appeared in the test tools for young children, male appeared more frequently than female. This indicates that there exists the sex-role stereotype that men occupy a larger proportion of society. However, in the case of adult characters, women appeared more than men. This means there appears the traditional sex-role stereotype that women like caring for children and are in charge of house chores and bringing up children. Third, as for the places of activities according to the sex of young children, boys and girls appeared on the scenes of preschools' and daily lives' activities at a similar proportion. However, girls appeared at a higher proportion than boys in the cases of role-plays, modeling activities, and figures?operation activities. The proportion of boys' appearances was larger than that of girls' in the case of construction plays. Though girls appeared more frequently than boys at the circumstances of daily house chores, yet the disparity between boys' proportion and girls' was not large. This suggests that a sex-role related to house chores is changing. The proportions of boys' appearances and girls' were not so different in the case of emotional and pro-social activities' circumstances. As for the play materials according to the sex of young children, the proportions of male play materials appearances and female play materials were not so different in the case of girls. But male play materials appeared more than female play materials in the case of boys. Boys appeared more than girls in the case of outdoor activities' circumstances. However, the proportion of the appearances was lower conspicuously than that in the past, through which we can see that the sex-role stereotype that outdoor activities exclusively belong to boys is changing. The occupations of the adult characters, the roles of female were housewives appeared more than the roles of specialists in the case of female. Fourth, as for the type of wrongful activities according to the sex of young children, the proportions of boys' wrongful activities and girls' were not so different. This indicates that the recognitions on manliness and womanliness is changing. Fifth, as for the result of examination of female's costumes, skirts were proven to appear more frequently than pants. However, figures of wearing pants also appeared. This presents the active image of women accruing from changed women's sex-roles. As for female's hairstyle, long hairstyle appeared definitely more then short hair in the case of girls. In the case of adult women, all characters were long-haired. This suggests there exists the stereotype of sex-recognition, which long hair symbolizes women. ;본 연구는 유아를 대상으로 하는 연구에 사용되는 유아용 검사도구에 나타난 성역할 고정관념을 분석하여 그 경향과 양상을 파악하는데 목적이 있다. 더불어 유아용 검사도구가 유아에게 바람직한 성역할을 가질 수 있게 제작 되도록 기초 자료를 제공하고자 한다. 이와 같은 목적에 따라 다음과 같은 연구문제를 설정하였다. 1. 유아용 검사도구의 성별 대상은 어떠한가? 2. 유아용 검사도구의 그림에 나타난 등장인물의 성별 분포는 어떠한가? 2-1. 유아의 성은 어떠한가? 2-2. 성인의 성은 어떠한가? 3. 유아용 검사도구에 나타난 등장인물의 특성은 어떠한가? 3-1. 유아의 성에 따른 활동유형과 놀이감은 어떠한가? 3-2. 유아의 성에 따른 활동장소는 어떠한가? 3-3. 성인 등장인물의 직업 유형은 어떠한가? 4. 유아용 검사도구에 나타난 성별인식은 어떠한가? 4-1. 유아의 성에 따른 부정적 행동은 어떠한가? 4-2. 여성 등장인물의 복장과 머리모양은 어떠한가? 본 연구의 분석 대상은 1993년부터 2003년 2월까지 간행된 국내 유아관련 석ㆍ박사학위 논문과 국내의 정기간행물(아동학회지, 유아교육연구, 교육학연구)에 수록 된 유아용 검사도구 중 유아와 일 대 일로 개별 면접을 실시할 수 있고 등장인물의 성을 분명히 알 수 있는 유아용 검사도구 28개이다. 본 연구에서 사용한 연구도구는 이윤경(1982), 정해숙, 양애경, 김홍숙(1995), 김경수(1998), 김주희(1998), 조정란(2000)의 연구 자료를 기초로 연구자가 수정ㆍ보완하여 제작하였다. 본 연구를 통해 얻은 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 유아용 검사도구는 남ㆍ녀에게 같이 사용되는 혼용이 분리용보다 많았다. 둘째, 유아용 검사도구에 등장하는 인물은 유아의 경우 남아가 여아보다 많았다. 성인 등장인물은 여성이 남성보다 많이 나타났다. 셋째, 유아의 성에 따른 활동 유형은 유치원활동과 일상생활에서 여아와 남아의 차이가 비슷하게 나타났다. 그러나 유치원활동 중 역할놀이활동, 조형활동, 수ㆍ조작활동은 여아가 남아보다 많이 나타났고 쌓기놀이활동은 남아가 여아보다 많이 나타났다. 일상생활 중 집안일은 여아가 남아보다 많이 나타났으나 그 차이가 크게 나타나지 않아 집안일에 대한 성역할에 대한 변화가 나타남을 알 수 있다. 정서 및 친사회적 행동은 남아와 여아의 차이가 크게 나지 않았다. 유아의 성에 따른 놀이감은 여아의 경우 남성적 놀이감과 여성적 놀이감의 차이가 나지 않았으나 남아의 경우 남성적 놀이감이 많이 나타났다. 등장인물의 활동장소에서 실외활동은 남아가 여아보다 많이 나타났다. 그러나 그 비율이 과거보다 현저히 낮아졌다. 성인 등장인물의 직업 유형은 여성의 경우 주부의 역할이 전문가보다 많이 나타났다. 또한 직업의 종류도 전문가 중 교사로만 표현되었다. 넷째, 유아의 성에 따른 부정적 행동 유형은 남아와 여아의 차이가 크지 않았다. 여성 등장인물의 복장은 치마를 입은 경우가 많이 나타났다. 여성의 머리모양은 유아의 경우 긴 머리가 많이 나타났으며 성인 여자의 경우 모두 긴 머리를 하고 있는 것으로 나타났다.
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