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ITV示聽環境이 學習效果에 미치는 影響에 관한 硏究

Title
ITV示聽環境이 學習效果에 미치는 影響에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) study on the influences of viewing environment on ITV learning effectiveness
Authors
李惠卿
Issue Date
1976
Department/Major
대학원 시청각교육과
Keywords
ITV시청환경학습효과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
1.序論 敎育工學의 눈부신 發達로 敎授學習에 各種 媒體가 導入 되고 있다. 이중 Television의 敎育的 效果는 Television을 활발히 敎育現場에 導入 活用하고 있는 美國, 英國, 日本등에서 이미 認定되었으며 效果的인 ITV授業을 위한 적절한 視聽環境 造成의 必要性이 强調되고 있고 이에 대한 硏究가 활발히 進行되고 있다. 우리나라의 경우 1969年 5月 5日부터 1973年 4月 9日까지 約 4年間 KBS에서 TV學校放送을 實施하였으나 受像機 보급 문제, 敎師의 無關心, 프로그램의 質, 編成上의 問題등으로 별다른 成果를 거두지 못하였으며 더구나 TV授業에 절대적인 影響을 미치는 影聽環境에 대한 고려는 전혀 이루어지지 못한 實情이었다. 現在 韓國敎育開發院 (KEDI)에서 本格的인 敎育放送을 準備증에 있으므로 보다 더 效果的인 活用을 위해 影聽環境에 대한 硏究·開發이 必要하며 따라서 本硏究에서는 TV 授業의 影聽環境(物理的.心理論 要因)이 學生들의 心理的 要素 및 學習成就度에 미치는 影響을 밝힘으로서 ITV를 效率的으로 活用키 위한 보다 바람직한 影聽環境을 모색코자 한다. Ⅱ. 硏究問題 本 硏究에서 밝히려는 問題는 다음과 같다. A. ITV 影聽環境 (心理的·物理的 환경요인) 과 學濕 成就度와의 관계를 밝힌다. B. 서울 市內 國民學校의 TV學習에 대한 影聽環境 및 敎師와 學生의 態度를 調査 分析한다. C. ITV의 特性 및 교육적 가치를 밝히고 ITV 學習에 대한 影聽環境 및 敎育壽法의 革新方案을 모색한다. Ⅲ. 方法 및 節次 A. 硏究方法 ITV의 歷史的인 背景과 影聽環境에 관한 심리적.물리적 요소를 발췌하기 위해 관계 문헌 및 資料를 調査 分析하였고, 우리나라 ITV 影聽環境現況울 調査하고 學習 成就度와의 關係를 밝히기 위해서 實驗 및 質問紙를 制作 사용하였다. B. 硏究 節次 1차 調査 (1976. 2.15~3. 15)에서는 서울市內 63個 國民學校를 對象으로 質問紙를 우송하였고, 36개교로 부터 회신을 말아 이를 백분율 통계 처리를 하였다. 2차 調査 (1976. 3. 29~4. 6)에서는 1차 調査對象孝校중에서 TV를 활발하게 활용하고 있는 G학교를 選定하여 實驗 및 質問紙 調査를 하였으며, 또한 TV活用이 활발한 4개교 敎師 集團에 質問紙 調査를 하였으며 이를 Computer를 이용한 ANOVA(Analysis of variance)및 백분율 통계 처리로 하였다. 이상의 硏究를 하는데는 몇가지 制限點이 있었다. 우리나라 ITV 授業이 정상궤도에 올라 있지 않기 때문에 調査對象과 硏究對象 地域이 制限되어 있고 國內의 先行硏究 및 關係硏究 分野의 實積이 충분치 않았다. Ⅳ. 結果 A.우수한 ITV 프로그램을 投入한 경우 ITV 影聽環境의 實驗變水인 座席配置가 學習內容傳達에 미치는 영향은 별로 크지 않았다. 그러나, 장기적으로 프로그행을 影聽해야 하므로 學習者들에게 身體的인 불편함이 없도록 적절한 影聽環境을 造成해 주어야 한다. B. ITV 學習內容에 대한 動機 및 흥미를 誘發하는 心理的인 環境조성을 ITV 影聽前 敎室敎師가 이행해야 하며 이는 ITV 授業의 效果에 重大한 영향을 미친다. 그러나 物理的 環境要因이 動機誘發에 영항을 미칠 것이라는 價說은 근소한 差異로 確認하 못했다. 따라서 이 點에 관한 많은 實驗 硏究가 要望된다. C. 최적의 시청환경을 조성하기 위해서는 우리나라 敎室형편을 고려해 볼 때 1個敎望에 TV를 2臺 設置하거나 最少限 補助 Speaker를 1대 더 設置하여야 한다. D. 各 集團의 上位集團과 下位集團을 비교해 볼 때 影聽環境이 충분히 조성된 集團에서는 上位集團의 學習者가 ITV 수업에서 成就度가 높았으며, 下位集團의 學習者는 學習 成就面에서 別 差興가 없었다. 또한 물리적인 沮害要素가 學習內容에 대한 理解力을 低下시키는 票因이 되고 있었으며 影聽環境變水(事前·事後指導+座席配置)와 실험집단 사이에는 相互作用 效果 (Interaction effect)가 없었다. E. 敎師와 학생들의 ITV 授業에 대한 態度를 決定하는 票因分析에서 ① Feedback ② 人間的인 接觸性 ③ 학생 집단의 담임교사와 TV 교사와의 능력 비교 등의 문제를 油出해 낼 수 있었다. 여기에서 학생집단의 敎師들꼭 能力 比較는 各 敎師의 능력을 發展시키는 促進劑가 될 수도 있다고 본다. F. 대부분 敎師들(資料誌討 100 %)은 TV 프로그램을 敎師補助物로 활용하기를 원하고 있으므로 이런 點이 앞으로 敎育放送 프로그램 制作에 反映되어야 할 것이며, TV 수상기 보급, TV 影聽環境造成, TV의 敎育的 技能에 대한 理解가 本格的인 TV 敎育 放送이 實施되기 이전에 이루어져아 한다.;1, Introduction Rapid progress of educational technology has made it possible to utilize various kinds of media in teaching. The effectiveness of Instructional Television is recognized in America, England and Japan. Television is actively being used in those countries for improving the instructional process. They have initiated research projects for the purpose of investigating the optimum conditions under which ITV is most effective. Korean ITV broadcasts were conducted with the aid of the Korean Broadcasting System between May, 1969 and April, 1973. They produced few positive results, however, for a variety of reasons : the shortage of TV sets, in the schools the indifference of classroom teachers to television teaching, the quality of the TV programs and difficulties in scheduling the programs at appropriate classroom hours. Unfortunately, no consideration at all was given to the impact of the viewing environment upon the television lesson. At the present time, the Korean Educational Development Institute is preparing for nation-wide ITV broadcasting, In order to make their ITV programs more effective, however, more research concerning the viewing environment must be undertaken. Therefore, this research investigated the ideal viewing enviroriment necessary for effective ITV lessons in the elementary school. It sought determine how the viewing environment influences the student and his learning achievement. II. Topics of Research This research focusses on the following topics : a) to understand the relation between learning efficiency aria environment of ITV viewing (Psychological,Physical factors). b) to examine the viewing environment of TV study at elementary schools in Seoul area and attitudes of teachers and students toward Educational Television. c) to explore the possible improvement of the viewing environ : nent and teaching methods through understanding the characteristics and educational value of ITV. III. Research rethols and procedure a) Research methods Books and artieles concerned with this field were used as the chief materials in order to extract the historical background of ITV system and the ITV Viewing environment in their Psychological and physical aspects. And some experiments n nd questionaires were used in order to examine the present status of the ITV viewing environment and its relation to learning effectiveness. b) procedure The first survey was undertaken between Feb. 15th and March 15th 1976. Questionaires were sent to 65 elementary schools responding. The results from these 36 schools were then compiled in percentage statistics. In a second survey from March 29th 1976 Until April 16, l976.Some experiments and questioneires studies were conducted at G school which was using TV most actively during the first investigation. And guestionaire study was done on teachers of four schools which participated in the first survey. Then those results were analysed by ANOVA,(Analysis of Variance) through computer compiling and were also compiled in percentage statistics. However, this research met some obstacles since TV education in Korea has not been normalized yet and adequate sources and materials concerned with this research are not sufficient at the present time. IV. Results of Research A. When a high quality ITV program is used, seating arrangement one of the variables in the viewing environment had a little influence upon the learning achievement. Howeve, Since students must watch ITV Programs for a long time, so classroom teachers must provide an atmosphere that is most conducive to reception of the ITV programs. B. Classroom teachers must try to arrange an environment which can stimulate the motives and interests prior to the ITV class. It shcul.d' be emphasized that this step is crucial in providing formidable influences to the efficiency of the ITV class. But the hypothesis that the physical environment was strongly influential in stimulating motivation could not be confirmed as yet. This assumption required further experimentation and research. C. Considering the classroom size in our country, an additional TV set or at very least an additional speaker will be required to establish an optimal viewing environment. D. Comparing high and low achievers in each class, The former showed a significant rate of progress when provided with a favorable viewing environment. But the low achievement group showed no significant difference. And it was found through this research that physical noise was played a role in degrading the learning efficiency and there was no interaction effect between environmental variables (advanced or follow up instruction plus seating arrangement) and the experimentall group. E. In factor analysis determining the attitudes of teachers and students toward ITV, the following problems were discovered : 1) feedback 2) human Contact behavior 3) Students Comparison between classroomteacher and TV teacher. In this process, students comparison of the ability of their teachers man be motive in developing each teacher's ability. F. The fact that most, rather all (100%) teachers wantedd to utilize the TV programs as their suppleaentary educational. materials must be reflected in future planning of TV programs. And the avalablitrof more TV sets, providing a favorable TV viewing environment, and an understanding of the educational effect of TV must be realized before nation wide educational television commences.
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