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高校生의 價値觀 硏究

Title
高校生의 價値觀 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON VALUE-ORIENTATION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS : with special reference to high schools in Seoul
Authors
李琦勳
Issue Date
1980
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
Keywords
고교생가치관교육행정
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
A. 硏究의 目的 本 硏究는 高校生의 價値觀을 밝히기 爲한 것으로 一種의 人生觀 硏究이다. 즉 高校生들이 人生을 살아감에 있어 窮極的인 目標로 삼고 있는 窮極的인 價値(terminal value)들을 어떠한 順位로 重要하게 생각하고 있으며, 그들의 行動 樣式의 基準이 되는 手段的 價値(instrumental value)들은 어떠한 順位로 무게를 두고 살고 있느냐를 밝히기 爲한 것으로, 全體的인 推移를 밝히고, 性別, 宗敎別, 學校系列別, 學業成績別, 父母의 主된 職業別로 比較하고 差異를 밝혀서, 그들을 바르게 理解하고 바르게 敎育시키는데 도움이 될 資料를 얻는데 硏究의 目的이 있다. B. 硏究의 方法 文獻硏究를 通해서 價値觀의 理論的 背景을 얻었고, 先行硏究의 檢討를 통해 硏究의 方向을 잡았으며, 質問紙를 통해 調査硏究를 하였다. 1. 標集對象은 서울市內의 高校 10個校(男·女 人文高 2個校씩, 男·女 商高 2個校씩과 男子工高 2個校)에서 2學年 各各 2學級, 120名씩을 選定하였다. 2. 質問紙는 Milton Rokeach의 것을 우리말로 번역하여 使用하였는데 18個의 窮極的 價値와 18個의 手段的 價値를 各各 重要하다고 생각되는 順序대로 順位를 매기게 하였다. 3. 資料處理는 統計的 方法에 依한바, 有效應答者 1,111名을 全體, 性別, 宗敎別, 學校系列別, 學業成績別, 父母의 主된 職業別로 各 價値가 얻은 順位의 頻度分布表를 만들고, 각 價値의 中央順位(median ranking)와 混成順位(composite ranking)을 내어 그 推移와 差異를 밝혔으며, 그 差의 意義度는 카이自乘法으로 檢證하였다. C. 硏究의 結果 1. 高校生들은 全體的으로 볼 때 窮極的 價値 18個에 對해서는 幸福, 友情, 家族의 安定, 成熟한 知慧, 內的인 調和, 自我尊重, 自由, 美의 世界, 성숙한 사랑, 平和, 즐길 수 있는 人生, 成就感, 平等, 安樂한 人生, 國家의 安保, 活動的인 人生, 社會的 尊敬과 칭찬, 끝으로 영적 구원 順으로 順位를 두고 있다. 手段的 價値 18個에 對해서는 正直性, 責任感, 높은 抱負, 雅量, 自律性, 知性, 創意性, 自主性, 有能性, 寬容性, 奉仕性, 예절성, 용감성, 愛情, 쾌활성, 청결성, 論理性, 順從性 順으로 比重을 두고 있었다. 2. 高校生의 價値觀을 性別, 宗敎別, 學校系列別, 學業成績別, 父母의 主된 職業別로 比較해본 結果는 예상대로 意義 있는 差를 보이는 것이 大部分이었으며, 綜合的으로 볼 때 男學生들 쪽은 友情이나 安樂하고 즐길 수 있는 人生, 높은 포부와 용감성, 창의성, 자주성, 책임감 따위에 더 높게 가치를 두고, 女學生들 쪽은 내적인 調和, 自我尊重, 知慧, 영적 구원 등과 知와 能力, 청결, 예절 등에 對해서 男學生들보다 높게 價値를 두고 있다. 다른 比較에 있어서는 基督敎人과 천주교인이, 學業成績 上位의 學生들이, 人文高 學生들이, 敎員의 子女들이, 다른 學生들에 比해 比較的 類似한 人生의 質을 보였으며, 거의 共通的으로 內的인 調和라든가 美·知·能力 및 成就感, 社會的인 認定 등에 對해서 높게 價値를 두고 있었다. 3. 結果에서 특징적인 것은 國家의 安保를 重視하는 國家政策 및 現實에 比해 國家의 安保에 對한 順位가 15位로 아주 낮은 點과, 韓國이 民主主義 國家이며 民主化를 爲해 몸부림치고 있는 現實에 比해 高校生들이 自由나 平和, 平等에 對한 所望 順位가 높지 않고 中位에 머물고 있다는 點으로서, 學生들이 國家나 社會, 民族보다는 自己 個人, 自己 家族 中心的인 個人主義로 상당히 偏重되고 있는 것으로 보여 이점들에 대한 敎育의 再檢討가 必要할 것 같다.;A. Purpose of the Study It is intended in the present study to inquire into what order high school students rank terminal values which they regard as the ultimate goal of their life and in what order they rank instrumental values which form the basis of their mode of behavior. It is further intended to investigate comparatively differences in their value-orientation by sex, religion, school affiliation, scholastic achievement and principal occupation of parents, thereby obtaining data and/or materials helpful to understand and educate them properly. B. Method of the Study The theoretical background of value-orientation was obtained through the investigation of literatures and the direction of the present study was set by an investigation that preceded. 1. 120 students each of 2 classes of the second year were selected for sampling from 10 high schools in Seoul City (2 each of general boys' and girls' high schools, 2 each of boys' and girls' commercial high schools, and 2 each of boys' technical high schools.) 2. Questionnaire used was the Rokeach's Value Scale which was translated into Korean. This questionnaire contained 18 items of terminal values and 18 items of instrumental values, respectively, to have the students rank them in the order of importance they consider. 3. Data collected from a total of 1,111 valid respondents were statistically treated and the frequency distribution of ranking each value obtained by total, sex, religion, school affiliation, scholastic achievement and principal occupation of parents, was tabulated. Based on this table, the median ranking and composite ranking of each value were taken out and their development and differences were investigated. The significant of their differences was tested by applying Chi-square method. C. Findings of the Study 1. High school students generally rank 18 terminal values in the order to happiness, friendship, family stability, matured intelligence, inner harmony, self-respect, freedom, aesthetic world, matured love, peace, enjoyable life, sense of achievement, equality, comfortable life, national security, active life, social respect and admiration, and finally spiritual salvation. With regard to 18 instrumental values, the respondents attach importance in the order of honest, sense of responsibility, lofty aspiration, tolerance, self-control, intelligence, creativeness, independence, competence, generosity, service spirit, etiquette, courage, love, cheerfulness, cleanliness, logicality and adaptability. 2. The comparison of value-orientation of high school students by sex, religion, school affiliation, scholastic achievement and principal occupation of parents revealed significant differences, as expected, in most of the respondents. Generally reviewing, boy students give much more weight to friendship, comfortable and enjoyable life, lofty aspiration and courage, independence, and sense of responsibility. On the other hand, girl students attach greater importance than the opposite to inner harmony, self-respect, wisdom, spiritual salvation, intelligence and competence, cleanliness, and etiquette. Catholic and christian students, high ranking students in scholastic achievement, those of general high schools and teachers showed relatively similar view of life to each other compared with other students. Almost all of the respondents commonly put higher values on inner harmony, beauty, intelligence, competence, sense of achievement and social recognition. 3. The findings to be noted, in particular, are the fact that, despite the stern reality of our country struggling desperately for democratization, the ranking of wishes of the respondents for freedom, peace and equality is not high but remains in medium and that national security is ranked considerably low at 15th. It appears from these findings that our high school students give greater weight to self- and family-centered individualism than to their country, society and people.
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