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高等敎育機關 學校法人 理事會의 構成機能에 關한 一硏究

Title
高等敎育機關 學校法人 理事會의 構成機能에 關한 一硏究
Authors
金永蕙
Issue Date
1980
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 硏究에서는 學校法人 理事會의 史的인 考察 그리고 學校法人 理事會의 構成과 機能에 對한 分析에 焦點을 두었다. 私立學校는 私立學校 特有의 設立精神에 符合되어 그의 獨自性과 公益性을 維持 發展해야 할 것이다. 이러한 獨自性과 公益性은 學校設立의 主體인 學校法人 理事會의 運營에서 비롯된다. 따라서 본 硏究의 目的은 學校法入 理事會의 機能과 理事의 資質을 理論的으로 살펴 보고 우리나라 學校法人 理事會의 活動의 實態를 把握하여 보다 바람직한 理事會 運營의 方案을 模索하려는데 있다. 歷史的으로 볼때 우리나라 學校法人 理事會의 發達은 네 段階로 나눌 수 있다. 첫째, 開化期의 私立學校法人 理事會이다. 甲午更張을 契機로 하여 敎育을 通해 國民의 指向할 바를 밝히려고 設立한 官制學校와 倂行하여 어지러운 情勢에서 救國運動을 展開하기 위해 國內 有志들이 展開한 私學運動이었다. 둘째, 日帝時의 私立學校法人 理事會이다. 韓日合邦條約이 締結公布된 後 韓國人 思想敎育의 統制와 日本帝國主義에 順從하는 忠良한 臣民을 養成하는데에 主目的을 두고 敎育政策을 實行에 옮겼다. 私立學校의 設置 經營을 위한 學校法人의 組織은 1915年에 改正 公布된 私立學校令에 依한 것이었다. 上記한 目的의 達成을 위해서 모든 節次와 手續은 朝鮮總督의 認可 아래 이루어졌으므로 學校法人의 機能을 發揮하는 機關인 理事會는 私學의 運當主體로서 機能을 發揮하지 못하였다. 私學 特有의 創意性과 自主性은 認定되지 않았다. 세째, 解放以後의 學校法人 理事會이다. 解放後 民主國家의 樹立 및 國民의 熱熱한 敎育熱 政府 當局의 私學財團에 대한 免稅措置의 特惠 學敎設立認可의 濫發, 그리고 外國의 敎育 機關에 대한 援助 等에 힘입어 私學은 急激히 增加했다. 唐時의 學校法人의 基本財産은 土地였다. 그런데 農地 改革法의 實施로 因한 基本財産의 喪失 6.25動亂, 經濟의 惡循環 等에 依해 財團의 機能이 喪失되고 運營經費의 大部分은 學生의 負擔에 依해 維持되었다. 學校法人의 機能을 發揮해야 할 理事會는 本然의 機能은 發揮하지 못하고 權限만을 主로 行使하려고 하여 많은 物議를 일으켰다. 네째, 1963年 私立學校法의 制定 公布後의 理事會이다. 私立學校는 밖으로 公共性을 띠고 안으로 自主性을 지녀야 한다. 學校設立 및 經營과 關係된 各種 敎育關係 諸法規를 統合하여 우리 나라 最初의 公法인 私立學校法이 制定되었다. 따라서 오늘날 私立學校法人 理事會는 이 私立學校法에 依해서 運營되고 있다. 學校法人 理事會의 任員構成은 5人以上 15人以下로 두고 있으며 學校法人 定款에 따라 理事會에서 選任하고 監督廳의 承認을 받아 就任한다. 學校法人 理事會는 理事長, 理事, 監事로 構成되어 있으며 우리 나라 私立高等敎育機關은 學校마다 약간씩 다르나 私立學校法의 限界內에서 組織되어 있다. 美國의 경우를 보면 私立學校의 理事數는 學校에 따라 매우 多樣하다. 理事數가 많은 學校法人 理事會에서는 專門性에 따라 分科委員會를 두고 있으나 우리나라는 아직 分料委員會를 두고 있는 곳은 없는 것 같다. 現在 우리나라에서 學校法人 理事會를 直接的으로 規定하고 있는 것은 1963年 6月26日 制定 公布된 私立學校法이다. 이 法의 限界內에서 私立學校만을 設置 經營할 目的으로 設立되는 法人이다. 理事會는 法人의 機能을 發揮하는 議決機關으로서 設置되며 私立學校를 運營하는 母體 惑은 主體의 근거를 가지고 있다. 私立學校法에 依하여 學校法人 理事會는 收益事業 任員의 就任, 豫算編成과 會計, 學校職員의 任免 等에 대해 當該 監督廳의 統制를 받는다. 法人과 私學의 學校長 및 任員에 대한 行政官廳의 監督權은 劃一的 形式主義를 止揚하고 合理的으로 簡素化 되어져야 한다.;This study chiefly deals with historical review, constitution and functions, of board of directors in the school judicial foundation in Korea it is recommendable that a private school maintain and develop its individuality and public good in compliance with its idiosyncratic spirit of establishment Deriven from the subject of school establishment, i.e., the operation of board of directors in a school judicial foundation are the originality and public good. Objectives of this study include the theoritical review of functions and dispositions of school judicial foundation board of directors, the grasp of the actual conditions of the boards of directors in Korea then suggestion of recommendable alternatives of operation in the board of directors on historical basis the development of foundation board of directors may be divided into four stages as follows : The initial stage began with a private school in the lafe Yi-Dynasty. This school was established by supporters at the time of Kapo Reformation with intention of evolving a save-the-dynasty drive under the adverse conditions, with help of royal schools established to suggest through education to the people their right orientation. Second, board of directors of school judicial foundation under Japanese rule camein Immediately after Korea-Japan Amalgamation Treaty and its promulgation educational policies had carried on with basic purposes of bringing through education under control and training subject's faith-ful loyal to the Japanese imperiation. The constitution of school Judical foundation, including establishment and operation of the private school had to be made by the private school ordinance revised and promulgated in 1915. For achievement of the aforementioned purposes, every procedure and process were conducted in compliance with approval of Chosun governor general accordingly board of directors to be in charge of functions in a school judicial foundation was not functioned in its own way as an executive organ in addition the private school's peculiar orginality and autonomy was not allowed. In third stage, board of directors of school judicial foundation after Korea Independence Comes. The establishment of a democratic nation after the independence, the people's enthusiasm of education, the government's tax exemption from private schools abundant permits of school establishment educational aids from overseas countries fostered to abruptly increase the number of private schools. In those days the basic assets of school judicial foundation relied on land but the losses of basic assets due to the farm-land Reformation Law, experienced difficulties, accordingly almost all the operational expenditure largely depended on students' burdens. Foundations boards of directors to be in charge of their own functions were incapable of carrying out their own ones, absorbed in their rights, therefore gave rise to hand public cirticism. Fourth, mention is made of board of directors after enactment and promulgation of the private school law in 1963. The private school should have externally the public good and autonomy internally. Based on and synthesizing laws and regulations related to school establishment and operation, the private school Law, the first public law in Korea, come to enactment. Accordingly boards of directors of private school judicial foundations today are operated according to this Law. The law stipulates that officers of foundation board of directors shall constitute of from more than five officers up to less than 15, be elected by the board of directors according to the foundation articles, then approved by the government authorities. The board of directors shall constitute of chairman directors, auditors, The organization of the board shows a slight difference from school to school in private senior high schools in Korea, but shall constitute within the boundary of the private schools Law. In America, for instance, the number of director vary with school. A board with a large number of directors organizes its subcommittees by speciality. But no board has any sub-committee in Korea. The direct control of foundation board of directors is simultaneously conducted by the private school Law enacted and promulgated on June 26, 1963. Every private school shall be established in compliance with the purposes stipulated in the law. Board of directors shall be organized as a decisionmaking organ to perform the foundation's functions, and has the subjectivity or matrix for the operation of the private school, According to the private school law, the foundation board of directors shall be controlled by the governmental authorities in profitable business election of officers compilation of the budget accounting, appointment and dismissal of school staff and teachers, etc. it is desired that the governmental supervision of principals and officers at private schools should sublate unified formalism, be rationally simplified.
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