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Teaching Machine이 英語學習成就에 미치는 效果
- Teaching Machine이 英語學習成就에 미치는 效果
- Other Titles
- (An) Experimental Study on the Effactiveness of the programmed Instruction by a Teaching Machine in English Learning
- Issue Date
- 대학원 시청각교육과
- teaching machine; 영어; 학습성취
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- The primary objective. of this study is to find out whethert picgrammed instruction method can be introduced for its use in the actual educatinal field df Korean school classrooms. It is wlii Known that this newly developed teaching msthod has been widely adoptec in many developed countries, and speedy progress in mechanical industries and electronic technlogy encourages many educatinal institution to bring this instruction method which is assisted by man-made devices such as teaching machine,in the classrooms.
Previous researches and experimental studies generally pointed out that programmed instruction can promote learner's performance batter than other instructional methods and can serve to the need of educational goals that demand quality improvement and individualized learning process. However, despite of such development in other countries and many theoretical proofs, it is very rucant that academic organizations as well as individual professors in Korea began to pay concerns to this area of instruction. There are few schocis which consider adoption of this method in their classrooms, thoueb financial protiem of school aaministrations seems one of ths main reasons for the denial of its adoption. It is also an undeniable situation that vary few person has ever tried to undertake rosoarch on whether the introduction of progranned irstruction into the Korean school education is faesible' and how much better this method can serve to the educational necessity than the traditional toacbing method.
In light of the above described contexts, this study is focused on clarifing how far programmed instruction can offect to studets performance level in their learning process. To examine the inter-relation between programmed instruction and learner's achisvcmont, the frame of this actual classroom expemet was designed in such a way that the outcomes witch two categories of student group had exposed during the exparimental period could be stcWtically compared. The first category of group was composed of two experimental groups and one of these experimental groups was to be instructed by teaching machine and the other to be taught by programmed paper materials. The second category of student group was left without any control so that they could take lessons by traditional teaching method as usual.
The number of hypotheses which were to be verified by this experiment was limited to the following three because of time pressure and some other problems such as difficulty of taking permission from the school authority. The hypotheses arc as follow :
Hypothesis 1. If the programmed learning based on teaching machine and the paper programmed learning being compared might show greater effectiveness towerd student's lesrning achievement than the latter.
Hypothesis 2. The experimental groups which take lessons by either teaching machine or paper materials might result better performance level in their learning process than the comparing group which is left to be instructed by traditionsl teaching method.
Hypothesis 3. The learning motives of the students who instruction might be more increased than the others.
In constructing the programme, great efforts were put on the careful selection of experimental variables so that unnecessary factors which have not direct linkages with the subject matter could not be affected to the result of this study. This preliminary operation was necessary to guarentee the feasibility of the experimantal outputs. And the materials used for composing programmes wrer selected among the 4 chapters of an English text of the escond grade of middle school. The reason why English was that english teaching involves a lot of characteristical problems which non-linguistic instructions do not have and there has not been this kind of experiment in the linguistic fields like English. The method of constructing programmes was accorded to the Skinner's programming model, and the completed programmes were, as mentioned above, presented to the one experimental group through the teaching machines designed by the Andio-visual Mucotion Department of Ewhe Women's University and to the other experimental group in the form of paper booklet.
The students to be observed in this expurimant were selected among the second grads studants of Duk Soo Middle School in Seoul, who had shown middle level performances in the both examinations of the regular school examination and the pretest undertaken by the author. The total unmber of students selected was 60 and they were devided into three groups-two experimental groups and one comparing group.
The period of this experiment was 40 days from September 25 to November 5, 1972. When all the experimental procedure over, an examination specially dosignod to test the English learning achievement was carried out to all three groups at the sama time. As last step of this exPeriment, the result of the examination, scores of students, were statistically analyzed by measuring the average scores of the three groups as well as the variation of their scores, and then the consequences were compared between the teaching machine group and the paper programme group and between the programmed learning group as a whole and traditional learning group.
In conclusicn, the rasults presented by the experimental research provec that the Hypothesis 1 and the Hypethesis 2 are affirmative, though some doubts might be vaised on the accuracy of this experiment. In regard to the Hypothesis 3, a simple questionaire in which students are asked to give answers about their feelings on programmed imstruction, was distributed when all the steps of the experiment had been finintec. The rosult showed that about 78% of the students experienced programmed learning expressed increased learning motives and their wishes that pyogrammec instruction be continued.
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