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어린이 TV敎育을 爲한 硏究

Title
어린이 TV敎育을 爲한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) study on children's TV
Authors
趙玉衍.
Issue Date
1975
Department/Major
대학원 시청각교육과
Keywords
어린이 TV교육시청지도관심도
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Mase Communication이 現時代에 있어서, 어린이들의 日常生活과 學校 社會生活의 一部가 됨에 따라, 우리 父母와 敎師들은 이러한 새로운 文化의 代行者로서, 어린이들의 文化를 따르지 않을 수 없게 되었다. 특히, TV는 어린이들과 청소년에게 心理的으로나, 身體發達過程은 勿論, 學習效果에도 크게 영향을 주며, 따라서 이에 따른 社會問題도 크게 대두되어 이에 對한 硏究와 指導를 고려하지 않을 수 없다. 이러한 사실을 감안하여, 本 論文에서는 外國의 硏究를 文獻資料로 살펴 보고 國內에서의 어린이 TV 視聽指導에 對한 질문지를 作成하여 敎師와 學父兄의 意見 및 態度를 비교 硏究하였다. 硏究進行過程은 文獻 硏究를 통하여 Mass Communication의 一般的인 영향 및 效果와 TV의 學習效果, 어린이의 TV指導 및 美國에 있어서의 어린이와 TV의 活動에 對해서 알아 보았다. 한편 어린이 TV 視聽指導에 對해서는 질문지를 作成하여, 私立國民學校, 中學校의 學父兄과 公立 國民學校, 中學校의 學父兄과 一般 職業別로 敎師, 公務員, 經濟界 集團으로 나누어, 그들의 意見 및 態度를 비교하였다. 질문지 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 視聽時間을 보면, 中學校는 公·私立 學校가 별차는 없으나, 國民學校 경우는 公立學校 學生들이 더 重視聽者이었고, 經濟界集團의 子女들이 比較的 重視聽者가 많은 경향이 었다. 2. TV 視聽時間은 대체적으로 제한하는 경향이나, 私立學校 父母들과 父母의 職業이 敎師인 集團이 더 Positive 한 反應을 보였다. TV視聽時間을 제한 안하는 이유는, 자기가 자기일을 결정하도록 하기 위해서로 公立國民學校 父母와 私立中學校 父母들이 더 positive 反應을 보였다. TV視聽時間 제한 方法을 보면, 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母들이 어린이 스스로 프로그램을 선정해서 視聽토록 권장하는 方法으로 가장 바람직한 反應을 나타내었다. 어른들의 프로그램을 제한하기 위해서 TV를 없애려고 생각한 것은 公立國民學校와 私立 中學校와 經濟集團의 父母들이 더 positive하게 나타났다. 어린이 時間 프로그램은 私立學校 父母들이 더 어린이가 좋아하는 프로그램만 보게하는 경향이고, 經濟界集團의 父母들은 무관심한 태도를 보였다. 식사시간의 TV 視聽관계는 公立學校 부모들이 더 시청하지 못 하게 제한하였고, 父母의 職業別에서는 세 집단이 모두 상관치 않는다는 反應을 보였다. 3. 프로그램 선택기준은 私立學校 父母들과 敎師集團 父母들이 더 positive 하게 자녀의 知識과 個人의 취미, 가치표준을 기초로하여 決定하는 경향이었다. 4. TV視聽형태와 환경의 관계는 모든 集團이 다 별로 영향을 받지 않는 것으로, 친구나 형제들과 노느라고 TV視聽을 잊는 수도 있고, 子女가 혼자인 경우는 혼자서 TV보는것을 더 좋아하지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 그 中, 私立國民學校, 中學校 學生들과 公務員과 敎師 集團의 자녀들이 더 positive하게 나타났다. 父母가 몹씨 바쁠때나, 귀찮게 굴때 子女들에게 TV를 보라고 하는 경우는 모두 바람직한 反應으로, 私立國民學校, 中學校와 公務員, 經濟界集團의 父母들이 더 positive하나, 敎師集團의 父母들이 특이하게 negative反應을 보였다. 5. TV視聽의 物理的 환경관계로 TV視聽거리와 조명 관계는 모든 集團이 다 바람직하다. 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母와 敎師集團 父母들이 더 positive하게 나타났다. 6. 어린이 프로그램이 아동의 욕구에 맞게 다양한가에는 敎師, 公務員, 經濟界 集團이 모두 개선할 점이 많다로 가장 불만을 표시했고, 國民學校, 中學校 부모들은 모두 보통으로 생각하나 개선할점이 많다에는 비교적 私立學校 父母들이 더 positive하게 나타났다. 각 放送局의 어린이 프로가 다양한가에는, 모두 어린이의 TV視聽率에 비하면 어린이를 위한 프로그램이 너무 적다로 불만을 표시했고, 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母들과 敎師集團이 더 positive反應을 보였다. 방송프로그램에 對한 불만이나 감정에 對한 항의를 各 放送局에 항의한 적은 모두 없다고 했으며, 항의해야 한다고 생각하는 경우는 私立學校 父母와 公務員, 敎師集團 父母들이 더 positive하게 나타났다. 7. 어린이 시간의 광고방송 비율이나, 이러한 광고에 對한 정부단속 문제나, 어린이를 광고화면에 利用하는 것에 대해서는, 모두 너무 많다거나, 단속해야한다. 제한해야 한다라고 불만을 나타냈고, 그 中, 私立學校 父母와 敎師集團 父母들이 더 positive反應을 보였다. TV에서 선정한 물건을 요청하는 경우는, 私立國民學校 父母와 公立 中學校 父母와 公務員, 敎師集團 父母들이 더 가끔 사주는 경향으로 나타났다. 8. 프로그램 내용의 종류에 대한 態度를 보면, 어린이가 만화영화나 폭련사건을 視聽하는 상항과 폭력과 공격적인 행동사이 관계는 비교적 바람직한 反應으로 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母와 敎師集團 父母들이 비교적 더 Positive反應이다. 어린이가 연속극을 視聽하게 하는 경우는 私立國民學校 父母들과 公務員과 經濟界 父母들이 더 해롭다고 하였고 公立中學校 父母들은 의외로 社會生活에 도움이 된다고 하였다. 코메디 視聽에 있어서는, 公立國民學校, 中學校 父母들과 敎師, 公務員, 經濟界集團 父母들은 명랑한 生活에 도움이 된다에, 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母들은 해롭다에 positive反應을 보였다. 대중가요나 쇼 프로그램의 視聽은 公立國民學校, 私立中學校, 父母들과 敎師集團 父母들이 더 視聽을 삼가하는 것에 positive反應을 보였다. 9. TV가 어린이 成長過程 및 敎育에 미치는 영향은 매우 크다는 바람직한 反應으로, 私立國民學校, 公立中學校, 敎師集團 父母들이 더 Positive하게 나타났고, TV가 敎育的으로 活用되어야 한다에는, 모든 集團이 다 活用되어야 한다는 反應으로 私立學校 父母들과 敎師集團 父母들이 더 positive하게 나타났다. 10. 어린이 TV視聽指導 및 관심도를 보면, 父母가 子女와 함께 TV를 視聽하는 경우는 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母와 緩濟界集團 父母들이 더 바람직한 反應을 보였다. 어린이 프로에 대해 이야기를 나누는 것은 전체적으로 드물다는 negative 현상이나, 자주 있는 경우는 私立國民學校와 公立中學校 父母와 公務員集團 父母들이 비교적 더 Positive하게 나타났다. 과거의 자녀들의 TV視德指導에 對한 관심도는 많이 가졌었다가 私立國民學校 父母와 公立中學校 父母들과 公務員 集團 父母들이 더 positive하고, 앞으로의 TV視聽指導에 대한 관심도는 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母들과 敎師集團에 대한 관심도는 私立國民學校, 中學校 父母들과 敎師集團 父母들이 더 positive하게 많은 관심을 가져야 겠다고 하였다.;At present, mass communication constitutes an important part of daily life and school-social activities of children, and the parents and teachers, who are acting as surrogates for new culture, are unavoidably affected by the children's culture. Television, particulary, has greatly influenced the children and youth in their psychology, their physical developments, and their learning efficacy, As a result, television has emerged as a serious social problem, and naturally the researches and counseling on this question drew increasing attention. Considering the trend, this thesis attempts to compare, by utilizing the research materials published in the foreign countries, the opinions and attitudes of the teachers and parents concerning the television viewing by the children. Through the review of research materials, such questions as the general impact and effect of mass communication, the efficacy of television teaching, the children's guide of television, and the activities of children and television in the United States are scrutinized. On the other hand, the questionnaires concerning the children's guide on television are sent to the various occupational groups, such as teachers, government employees, and businessmen. The results of the survey are as follow : 1. The length of viewing time shows no significant variation except the students of public elementary schools and the children of the business group tend to be heavy viewers. 2. There seems to be a general tendency to limit the viewing time, and the positive response came from the parents of the private school children and the parents whose occupational groups are teachers. As to the reasons for not limiting the viewing time, the parents of private middle schools and public elementary schools showed positive response, for they want to train their children with self-discipline. Concerning the techniques of limiting the children's television viewing time, parents of the private elementary schools and middle schools showed a positive response to support the children's attempt to select their own programs as the best possible alternative. As to the elimination of the television for the purpose of limiting the television viewing altogether, the group that have shown the most positive response comes from the parents of public elementary schools and private middle schools and the occupational group of businessmen. There is a tendency to permit viewing of the children's programs among the parents of private elementary schools more than any other groups, and the parents of business group showed least concern. Concerning the television viewing during the dinner, the parents of public schools tend to limit more than any other groups, and there were no significant variances among the occupational groups. 3. Concerning the standard of program selection, the parents of private schools and teacher group showed markedly positive response, and the knowledge, personal hobby, the standard of value judgment seem to provide the basis for the decision. 4. Concerning the attitudes and environment of television viewing, all groups showed no marked variances. Some forget to watch television while playing with their brothers and sisters, and the child who has no brothers or sisters did not prefer to watch television alone. Among the groups, the parents of middle schools and private elementary schools, and the occupational groups of governmental employees, and teachers showed a more positive response. When the parents are too busy and/or when they are bothered by children, they tend to ask children to watch television, and the parents of private elementary schools and middle school, the occupational groups of government employees and business showed more positive response, and the parental group of teachers showed markedly negative response. 5. On the question of physical environment of television viewing, especially the distance between the television set and the viewers and lighting, all groups showed positive response with the parental groups of private elementary schools and middle schools showing more positive response. 6. The question on the variety of the programs which satisfy the children's need showed a demand for a marked improvement by all occupational groups. The parents of the elementary schools and middle schools considered it, however, to be not a serious problem as opposed to the positive request for the improvement of the program by the parental groups of private schools. Regarding the question on the variety of children's programs, all groups showed dissatisfaction concerning the number of the children's programs and the length of television viewing by children. The parents of private elementary schools and middle schools and the occupational groups of teachers showed more positive response than any other groups. No group is said to have any experience in protesting to the broadcasting stations over the television programs aired, but the need for such protest was supported with a positive response among the parents of the private elementary schools and the occupational groups of government employees and teachers. 7. Concerning the retio of the commercial films in the children's program, the question of government control over advertizing and the use of children in commercial, a strong positive response was registered in support of control among the parents of private elementary schools and the parent of teaching occupation. As to the demand purchase of those merchandises advertized on the television, a greater propensity is shown among parents of private elementary and public middle schools, public officials, and the parents of teaching occupations. 8. As to the attitutes towards the content and varieties of programs, there was a positive correlation between the extent to which children watch the violence and cartoons and the propensity to violence and aggressive actions according to the parent of private elementary and middle school, and the parents in teaching profession. With regard to viewing of continuing stories, the parents of private schools and the occupational groups of public officials and business regard such viewing more harmful, while the parents of children in public middle school consider such viewing helpful to social studies of the children. With regard to the viewing of comedy, parents of public elementary and middle schools, and the parents in teaching profession, public service and business consider such viewing beneficial to the development of cheerful mode of living, while the parents of private elementary school and middle schools labled such viewing harmful. 9. Parents of all groups surveyed consider television contributes a great deal to the growth and education of children. Also the parents of all groups largely agree that television must be utilized for educational purpose. 10. As to the level of concern and parental guidance on children's television viewing, the parents of private elementary schools and the parental groups of teachers showed a positive response in support of the joint parent-children viewing of television. There are generally a negative response concerning the discussion on the children's programs, and the parental groups of private elementary schools and public middle schools, and the occupational group of government employees showed a relatively positive response in support of the more exchange of views on the children's programs. The parental groups of private elementary schools and public middle schools and teaching profession showed more positive response on the past level of concern over the children's programs, and the parental groups of private elementary schools and middle schools and teaching occupation group showed a more positive response on the future level of concern over the children's television programs.
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