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韓國 女性 勤勞者의 職場適應에 關한 硏究

Title
韓國 女性 勤勞者의 職場適應에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
Korean women workers and their job adjustment : with emphasis on factors affecting their job adjustment
Authors
張義順
Issue Date
1977
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공일반사회교육분야
Keywords
여성근로자직장적응현장적응
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本調査硏究는 韓國女性勞動者을 대상으로 그들의 職場適應에 영향을 끼치는 諸要因들을 파악하고, 各要因과 職場適應간의 구체적인 관계를 究明하는데 목적이 있었다. 이러한 目的을 달성하기 위해 本硏究에서는 韓國女性勞動者들의 一般的 屬性을 反映할 수 있는 한 業體를 대상으로 거트만(L.Guttman)의 스캘로그람(Scalogram)方法에 의해 構成된 質問書를 가지고 자료를 수집 분석하였다. 이때 職場適應의 척도문항으로 선정된 항목은 (1) 經營者와의 意思疎通, (2) 職場에 대한 外部에서의 認定, (3) 職場移動希望度, (4) 作業量, (5) 作業環境의 安全度, (6) 他工場과의 賃金比較, (7) 厚生福祉의 7개였으며, 그들의 職場適應에 영향을 끼치는 要因으로 선정된 變數들은 社會的 背景, 職場의 內的要因, 職場外에서의 生活狀況 등의 세가지 측면이다. 이제 本硏究를 통해 밝혀진 內容들을 정리하면 다음과 같다. 첫째로 職場適應과 勞動者의 社會的 背景과의 關係는 아홉가지의 측면에서 分析하였다. 그결과 年令과 職場適應은 正比例의 關係를 갖고 있어 年令이 증가할 수록 職場適應度도 상승하고 있지만, 敎育水準은 오히려 反比例의 關係를 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 宗敎와 職場適應은 약간의 관계를 보이는 것 같지만 旣存의 硏究結果와 차이가 많으므로 앞으로 보다 세밀한 硏究가 필요할 것 같으며, 成長地와의 關係는 農漁村地域出身이 都市出身보다도 適應度가 높은 것으로 밝혀졌다. 以前職業과의 關係는 工場動務經驗者들의 適應度가 비교적 높은데, 그 중에서도 現在와 類似한 工場에의 動務經驗者들이 보다 높았으며, 學校在學者보다는 家庭婦나 無職者들의 適應度가 높았다. 就業動機와의 關係는 가정의 經濟的 與件 때문에 就業한 者들의 適應度가 他動機에서 보다 높지만 他硏究結果에서와 차이가 많으므로 앞으로 再檢證되어야 할 것으로 생각되며, 父母의 生存與否와의 關係는 큰 意味가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 父母의 職業과는 상당한 關係를 갖고 있어 父母의 職業的 階層이 높을수록 職場適應度는 낮게 나타났다. 한편 父母를 떠나온 期間과 職場適應간에는 별다른 關係를 찾을 수 없었다. 둘째로 職場適應과 職場內的 要因과의 關係는 여덟가지 측면에서 파악하였다. 먼저 入社經路와의 關係는 자신이 직접 職場을 선택하거나 또는 會社의 스카웃에 의해 入社한 者들의 適應度가 他人의 추천에 의해 入社한 者들의 適應度보다도 낮은 것으로 밝혀졌다. 賃金水準과의 關係는 일정한 수준까지는 賃金의 上昇에 따라 職場適應度도 上昇하지만 그 이상부터는 임금수준이 높아짐에 따라 직장 적응도가 낮아지는 傾向을 보였다. 그리고 現職場動務期間과의 關係는 어느 정도 기간까지는 기간이 오래됨에 따라 직장 적응도도 높아지지만 그 이상부터는 다시 하강하였다가 상승하는 포물선의 關係를 갖는 것으로 나타났음에도 불구하고 總職場生活經驗期間과의 關係에서는 별로 의미있는 결과를 찾을 수 없었다. 勞組의 必要性에 대한 認識程度와의 關係는 그 必要性을 느낄수록 適應度가 낮아지는 것으로 밝혀졌으며, 職場內 同鄕人의 存在與否와의 關係는 同鄕人이 많을수록 適應度도 높은 것으로 나타났다. 한편 作業時間과의 關係는 反比例의 關係를 맺고 있어 作業時間이 많다고 느낄수록 適應度가 낮았고, 同僚간의 親睦의 程度는 親睦이 잘 된다고 느낄수록 適應度가 높게 나타났다. 세째로 職場適應과 職場外에서의 生活類型과의 關係는 아홉가지 變數를 통해 알아 보았다. 異性交際와의 關係는 과거 異性交際의 經驗이 있거나 現在異性交際중에 있는 者들의 職場適應度가 낮은 반면 將來 結婚을 約束하고 있는 者들과 전혀 異性交際의 經驗이 없는 者들의 現場適應度는 높은 것으로 나타났다. 經濟生活과의 關係는 家族에게 俸給의 一部를 送金하거나 貯蓄을 하고 있는 者들이 그렇치 못한 者들 보다도 適應度가 높았다. 結婚後의 就業意思與否와의 關係는 可否간에 意思가 決定되어 있는 者들 보다도 意思를 決定치 못한 者들의 適應度가 훨씬 높았지만 그 이유는 앞으로의 硏究를 통해서 파악되어져야 할 것으로 생각된다. 居住形態 및 家族과의 連絡의 程度와의 關係는 우선 自宅居住者들의 職場適應度가 가장 높았으며, 居住形態가 自宅이 아닌 者들은 家族과 자주 연락하거나 편지로만 연락하는 者들이 가끔 연락하는 者들 보다도 낮은 것으로 밝혀졌다. 어려운 問題가 發生하였을 때 相談하는 對象者와의 關係에서는 問題를 혼자 解決하는 者들 보다도 相談者와 상의하는 경우에서 훨씬 適應度가 높았으며, 그 경우 相談者가 職場外일 때 보다는 職場內에 있는 者일 때, 그리고 新舊보다는 上位者일 때가 훨씬 높았다. 한편 地域社會에 대한 滿足度와의 關係는 滿足度가 높을수록 適應度도 높았으며, 餘暇生活과의 關係는 應答標本數가 적은 餘暇形態를 제외할 경우 단순한 休息보다는 讀書, T.V 및 라듸오 청취자들의 適應度가 높은 것으로 集計되었다.;The purpose of the present study was to find out by what factors and in what way Korean women factory workers are affected in terms of their adjustment to job setting. Selected purposively for this study was one large-size factory of light industry, located in a suburban Seoul, which employs many women workers. Questionnaires were administered to most of women workers of one shift during their off-duty hours. After excluding some unusable ones, a total of 286 questionnaires were put under analysis here in the present study. To measure women worker's adjustment to their job setting, a composite index was constructed, by using Guttman's Scalogram method, with seven question items involving women worker's evaluation of their communication with the management, of the prestige of their job perceived by others, of their job safety, of their work load, of their wages in comparison with those of other factory of similar nature, of their welfare facilities on the job site, and of their desire, if any, of moving to other factory. Tree groups of variables involving social background, job-related factors, and off-the-job life were introduced to explain possible differential job adjustment among the women workers. Major findings were as follows : Social Background and Job Adjustment : Age was found to be associated positively with the degree of job adjustment. Older workers tended to be better adapted to their job setting. Educational level was found to be negatively related with job adjustment. Women workers with more schooling tended to be less well adapted to their job. Religion or church affiliation was found to produce rather inconclusive results, requiring further explorations. Women workers of rural origin were found likely to be better adapted to job setting as compared with women workers of urban origin. Work experience prior to the present one was found to affect the degree of adjustment to the current job. The degree of job adjustment was found to be highest among the women workers with prior experience in factory work, particularly with prior experience of employment in factory of similar nature with the present job, intermediate among those with experience of housemaid and among those with experience of unemployment, and least among those coming to the present job right after finishing schooling. Parent's occupational status was found to be negatively associated with women worker's adjustment. Job-related factors and Job Adjustment : Degree of adjustment to job setting was found to be related with how women workers got the present job. Those who got the job through personal recommendation were found to be higher in the adjustment score as compared with those getting the job through other means. As wage increases, the degree of job adjustment was found to increase up to a certain level, beyond which wage increase appeared to be somewhat negatively related with the job adjustment degree. The length of employment at the present job was found to be positively associated with job adjustment up to a certain level beyond which length of employment was found to be negatively related with the job adjustment. But further increase in length of employment found to be accompanied by increase in the job adjustment. No relationship was found between total length of experience in employment and job adjustment. Women workers in favor of unionization were found more likely to show poorer adjustment to their job setting. The number of work-mates from the region of their own origin was found to help women workers better adapt to the job setting. Lower degree of job adjustment was found among women workers who felt they were required to work a longer hour than deems necessary. Higher degree of job adjustment was found among those workers who felt they were getting along pretty well with their work-mates. Off-the-job Life and Job Adjustment : Higher degree of job adjustment was found among women workers presently engaged and women workers with no experience of dating than those with some experience of dating or currently dating. Degree of job adjustment was found to be higher among those who either did some saving or remit part of their earnings to the family back home than among those who did neither. Job adjustment degree was found to be highest among those who lived together with their family, intermediate among those who corresponded less often with their family back in the country side, and lowest among those who corresponded more often with their family back home. Job adjustment degree was found to be higher among women workers who tended to consult with someone inside the factory about troublesome problems than among those whose consultation partners were someone outside the factory. Higher degree of job adjustment was found among those feeling more satisfied, as compared with those less satisfied, with the community surrounding their factory. Degree of job adjustment was found to be higher among those who spent their off-duty hours with reading books, watching television, or listing to radio than among those who simply killed time.
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