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韓國幼稚園敎育의 공교육화에 關한 硏究

韓國幼稚園敎育의 공교육화에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on Public Preschool Education in Korea with Special Reference to the Feasibility and to the Easiting Public Primary School
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교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
유치원교육; 공교육화; 국민학교; 병설유치원; 교육학
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
This study on the requirements of establishing public preschools to be administered by the existing public primary schools for educational purposes and some other services for preschool children who need early childhood education including day care presents some consequential factors which make us assured, as a result of many-sided full analyses and examinations, that preschools should be established and administered systematically by the public primary schools for effective and comprehensive education-which preschool children in this country and their parents need and want today. For this aim, it is quite essential for us to turn our attention to such important points as "What is the present situation of the existng "model public preschools" within some public primary schools like? What advantages and disadvantages do we find in practising this system now? What problems are we faced with? What's the irreducible minimum of a standard demanded for practical programs and administration of the early childhood education connected with the public primary schools?" In studying these I certainly owe a great deal of reference to several printed matters-studies reported by some professors and noted specialists in this field, and also to my personal interviews which I had with quite a few Korean professors and some Kindergarten teachers now in active service. The specialists in the study of education provided me with more knowledge of the development history and the present situation of kindergartens in this country as well as the general trends of early childhood education programs in some advanced countries and also the superior opinions of those foreign specialists and advocates who are interested in the overall improvement of early childhood education connected with public primary schools. Besides, with the Korean specialists I talked quite a bit about how they are doing with kindergartens and what the future prospect of it could be like, and exchanged our mutual thoughts about the advantages and problems- existing or possible, the minimum standard of necessary facilities and preparations to be required for expanding the program of establishing public preschools attached to public primary schools. And the kindergarten teachers gave me a good deal of informations about the problems which they are faced with and about what they need and desire. Through all these studies and interviews we came to a common conclusion as follows : First, all over this country we have so many primary schools equipped with educational facilities to be utilized for good advantages of giving preschool children considerable services-educational, recreational, medical and other. Second, the coalitional system between preschool which can do day care services too and primary school seems so feasible that young children's education can be more naturally continued from their early childhood education to their secondary school for sure. Finally, today's cityward drifting of population continuously causes a great number of people to leave rural communities and therefore the number of vacant classrooms of the schools in rural areas keeps increasing, accordingly. Well, provided those classrooms which are left empty are put to good use for the aim of public preschools including day care services, the young children and their parents especially in the underdeveloped or backward parts regions of this country can be actually given a good deal of help, visible or invisible, and furthermore, securing enough teaching staff in these areas will be probably available with rather less budget. On the other hand, we should carefully observe, but never overlook the consequent fact that lots of problems can be created in children's mental, reasonable and physical developments when the defective or lowly skilled programs and systems don't get improved to a certain degree, for while young children attend kindergarten and then primary school which have different environments, different school systems, and different characteristics of the separate schools, there is a possible danger of bringing about hindrance or lack of progress to the youngsters' creativity and originality and originality. This is certainly one of the reasons why we have to work out and practise the best programs pertinent to this subject, and I would persist that every specialist and outstanding kindergarten teacher must volunteer to participate in this work with all knowledge and experiences for the satisfactory systems of preschool education. In consideration of these points of view about the advantages and problems occurring in process of carrying out the educational system of combining preschools and primary schools harmoniously, I would like to suggest that this program should be handled along with all the urgent and and possible problems which should be solved about the versatile levels of the young children applicable to early childhood education, enough funds, sufficient qualified teachers, pertinent facilities and curricula. Today, many a problem exists in the system that the primary-school principals administer the model preschools established in their schools despite they have no professional knowledge or enough experiences in early childhood education and child care services. Now, the following suggestions are based on the findings attained through our studies and interviews : Really we anticipate that the requirements of early childhood education in the preschools attached to public primary schools will gradually increase all over this country, so one of our first cares is how to get enough "qualified" teachers. And therefore we see that some proper arrangements should be made in a hurry to get sufficient teaching staff trained soon. Besides, we should know that low pay only makes us lose superior teachers, so we have to ask the payment to preschool teachers to be put on the same level of the remuneration which the teachers of public primary schools and secondary schools get paid at present. Second, the program of establishing public preschools widely should begin with the districts of lower wage-earner class and the regions with relatively under-developed culture, for they need it more urgently. Third, to seek best methods for successful "early childhood education and day care," we need to study and understand the physical developments of Korean infants, different from Western children, and social problems, circumstances of the communities, economical situations of the families, the parents' education, and so forth. After all, we all agreed to the point of view that the current systems of school administration and the curricula have much room to be improved for fruitful practice of the preschool program in public primary schools, and that the children and their parents long for such a coalitional program of public primary school and preschool well adapted to their particular circumstances of different societies, communities, cities, etc. Our government agencies or some organizations of specialists concerned in preschool programs can make a choice of a few places to form and try out new model preschools unified with public primary schools, using new methods fully pre-examined and adaptable for the regional circumstances, characteristics and requirements which may be particular to the people living in the different districts specially selected after careful studies on the feasibility. Finally, regular funding system is required for effective performance of preschool programs. For intensified support to preschool programs, the Ministry of Education can establish a department responsible for early childhood education including day care services, and the boards of educati tion in cities and provinces can have new departments or sections for the same purpose. Moreover, the financial supporting duties may be placed in charge of specialists in educational budgeting. Besides, it will be necessary that school inspectors and education superintendents should be appointed to posts in each of the boards of education.;이 硏究는 韓國 幼稚園 敎育의 公敎育化에 關한 것으로서 公敎育化의 한 方案인 國民學校 倂設 幼稚園의 設立 運營을 여러 측면에서 分析·검토한 것이다. 硏究의 窮極的 目的은 國民學校 倂設 幼稚園이 지향해야할 方向을 提示하고자 하였으며, 이를 위해 具體的으로 現在 示範 運營되고 있는 倂設 幼稚園의 현황파악, 方案의 長點 및 問題點, 그리고 設立 運營의 최소한의 기준 設定을 그 問題로 하였다. 이와 같은 目標를 達成하기 위하여 본 硏究에서는 文獻 硏究와 面談의 方法이 채택되었다. 文獻 硏究를 通하여 韓國 幼稚園 發達 過程과 현황, 그리고 주요국의 幼稚園 公敎育 動向을 살피보므로써 倂設 幼稚園 設立의 背景을 탐색하였다. 面談은 倂設幼稚園에 勤務하고 있는 幼稚園 敎師들과 幼兒敎育專門家들을 對象으로 하였다. 前者에서는 現在 示範 運營되고 있는 倂設 維稚園의 實態가 主로 이야기 되었고 後者를 通해서는 倂設 維稚園 設立 運營의 長點 및 예상되는 問題點, 그리고 앞으로 倂設維稚園 設立 運營이 擴大되는 경우 갖추어야 할 최소한의 기준 等이 탐색되었다. 이러한 過程을 通하여 우리는 다음과 같은 結論에 到達하였다. 倂設維稚園의 長點으로 들 수 있는 것은 첫째 國民學校는 全國 어느 곳에나 분포 되어 있고 兒童指導를 위한 基本的인 施設이 이미 갖추어져 있는 點, 두째로는 國民學校와 幼稚園은 連繼시켜 幼稚園 敎育을 보다 빠르게 보편화 시킬수 있다는 點이 지적되었다. 또 最近 都市化 현상으로 農村 人口가 流出되므로 생기는 有休敎室을 幼稚園 敎室로 活用한다면 文化 落後性 地域의 幼兒敎育이 可能하고 敎員 構成上의 利點으로 子算節減이 可能하다는 長點을 들고 있다. 한편 問題點는 幼稚園 園兒와 國民學校 高學年과는 그 發達 段階와 特性이 다르기 때문에 細密한 硏究와 檢討가 있기 前에는 獨創性과 創意力 發達에 저해가 되기 쉽다는 點이 지적되었다. 또 幼兒敎育에 關한 非專門家인 校長이 원장을 겸임 하므로써 여러가지 問題가 도출되고 있음이 밝혀졌다. 이러한 長點 및 問題點을 고려할 때 國民學校 倂設 幼稚園 設立·運營·方案에 있어 갖추어야 할 최소한의 기준이 兒童, 敎員, 施設, 財政, 敎育課程 等 各 領域別로 제시되었다. 이러한 硏究 結果에 의거하여 추출된 몇가지 提言은 다음과 같다. 첫째 앞으로 國民學校 倂設維稚園 設立으로 因한 幼兒敎育 人口가 급격히 擴大 될 것을 전망 할 때 유아교육을 擔當할 교사양성은 시급한 問題로 다루어져야 하며 優秀敎師 확보를 위해 교사의 처우는 初·中等 敎員의 준하는 단일 호봉제를 적용해야 할 것이다. 두째 國民學校 倂設 幼稚園을 全國的으로 擴大함에 있어서 그 대상지역은 文化 落後地域 및 저소득층에 一次的인 우선 順位를 두어야 할 것이 要望된다. 세째 幼兒敎育에 대한 知識이나 敎育方法이 韓國幼兒의 身體的發達, 社會的 問題, 家庭機能의 問題, 敎育的 問題 等이 면밀히 檢討 硏究 되어야 하며 國民學校 연계 敎育을 위해 敎育課程의 改善이 이루어져야 할 것이다. 또 地域社會마다 幼兒敎育에 대한 기대가 다르므로 획일적 敎育課程은 지양되어야 한다는 點에 意見이 모아졌다. 이에 따른 한 方案으로는 國家나 專門硏究機關에서 地域 特性에 맞는 몇가지 가능한 모델을 제시하므로서 융통성 있게 選擇하도록 할 수 있을 것이다. 네째 幼稚園 敎育을 效率的으로 推進하기 위해서는 지원체제의 强化가 절실히 要求된다. 행정적인 지원체제로서 文敎部는 幼兒敎育을 담당하는 전담 부서를 신설해야 할 것이며 앞으로 市·道. 敎育委員會에도 幼兒敎育科가 설치되어야하며 유아교육에 관한 專門家가 그 일을 맡도록 해야 한다. 또한 교육위원회에는 유아교육을 전담하는 장학관 및 장학사가 配置되어야 함이 급선무다.
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