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金東仁의 短篇小說 硏究

Title
金東仁의 短篇小說 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON THE SHORT STORIES OF KIM DONG IN
Authors
金銀煥
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
교육대학원 어학교육전공한국어교육분야
Keywords
김동인단편소설등장인물작품세계
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
1919年 東京에서 純粹 文藝同入誌 「創造」를 發刊하고 거기에 첫 作品 <弱한 者의 슬픔>을 발표하면서 文學活動을 시작한 作家 金東仁은 그후 30餘年동안 詩歌를 제외한 모든 분야에 걸쳐 尨大한 著作物을 남겼다. 그 동안 수 많은 評者나 硏究者에 의해 論議의 대상이 되었던 그와 그의 文學은 肯定과 否定이라는 전혀 矛盾된 극단의 評價를 받아왔다. 그런데 이러한 評價가 그의 文學에 대한 惡評이었든 好評이었든 간에 지나치게 文學外的인 要素, 즉 性格, 私生活, 環境 등의 傳記的 要素에 집착하여, 그의 文學 自體에 대한 評價가 아니었다는 結論을 얻었다. 그러므로 本論文에서는 그의 作品 自體만의 分析을 통하여, 그의 文學이 가진 特色을 알아 보았다. 그러나 그의 全作品은 量締으로나 分野로나 너무 尨大하므로 1919年의 處女作 <弱한 者의 슬픔>부터 1941年 <곰네>까지의 短篇 48篇을 對象으로 하였으며, 作品 한편 한편을 따로이 分析하는 方法이 아니라, 그의 全作品에서 그의 文學全體를 性格짓는 몇몇 恒久的 態度, 表現方式, 感覺方式을 알아보려 한다. 具體的인 方法으로는 48篇 全體를 對象으로 하여 人物의 命名, 性別, 나이, 社會的 階層, 婚姻與否, 敎育程度, 職業, 活動舞臺, 葛藤의 樣相이나 要因, 結末, 視點 등을 統計 分析하였으며, 그 結果 다음과 같은 結論을 抽出하였다. 첫째, 東仁은 登場人物에게 命名을 통하여 特性을 부여하는 性格創造의 初步的 方法에 힘써, 이름 하나에도 苦心하는 創作態度를 가졌다. 둘째, 作中 主人公들로 주로 20代의 庶民層 以下를 많이 등장시켜 방황하는 삶으로 그리어, 傳統秩序가 무너진 다음 外勢의 侵入으로 기반을 잃고 혼란된 社會를 作品化했다. 세째, 無力한 40대 男性, 孤兒가 많은 20代를 통하여 父權과 國權의 喪失을 表現했다. 네째, 精神的 支柱를 잃은 삶을 肉體를 통한 삶으로 나타내어 性本能 둥을 자주 作品에서 다루었으나, 많은 評者들의 結論과는 달리 否定的으로 나타냈다. 다섯째, 植民地라는 時代背景을 " K남작" "거칠은 터 " "街頭" "監獄" "눈보라 벌판" "病室" 둥으로 象徵表現하여 참담한 現實觀을 나타냈다. 여섯째, 葛藤의 樣相으로 外的 葛藤을 많이 보였으며, 無知와 貧困 傳統社會의 잔재에, 마구 받아들인 西歐思想이 야기한 병폐를 作品에서 많이 다루었다. 일곱째 , 참담한 現實認識과 함께 주로 敗北하고 挫折하는 人間들을 그렸으나, 都市에서보다는 農村에서 來日에 대한 希望을 發見하여, 否定的으로 그린 곰네에게 아기를 안겨줌으로써 아내와 어머니로서의 女性에게 肯定的 意味를 부여하였다. 自然과 접할 機會가 많기 때문에 어린이들이 자랄 場所로 農村을 택한 듯하며, 또 東仁의 小說에서는 自然이 肉化되고 心化되어 등장하며, 지쳐버린 人間에게 새로이 活力을 주는 要素로 묘사되기도 했다. 여덟째, 東仁은 <이 盞을>을 통하여 기독교 교리가 사랑임을, 또 無能하고 나약한 男性에게 가장 강하고 위대한 父權의 象徵으로서의 예수를 보여 주고, <明文> · <결혼식>을 통해서는 맹목적이고도 형식적인 信仰을 풍자, 희화화했다. 아홉째, 48篇中 2篇을 뺀 나머지 46篇을 一人稱 또는 作家 관찰자 시점으로 장치하여, 作家 自身의 눈과 입을 통한 사실들만을, 독특한 간결체 文章으로 선명하게 形象化하고 있다. 이러한 作家的 態度는 많은 評者에게서 唯我獨存式의 오만한 태도로 作中入物 및 讀者 위에 君臨한다는 비난을 받고, 삶이라는 現實 全體가 아니라 作家의 趣向에 맞는 一面만을 自己流로 素材化하여, 現實參與意識이 희박한 도피성 내지 敗北의 文學을 지어냈다는 否定的인 評價를 받기도 했다. 그러나 그러한 評價는 評者들이 그의 小說의 표면적인 뜻을 너무 액면 그대로 받아들인 때문이며, 따라서 東仁은 누구보다도 현실을 있는 그대로 그린 작가라는 결론을 얻었다.;Writer Kim, Dong In started his literary activities with the publication of his debut work "Sorrow of the Weak" in the pure literary magazine "Changjo" in 1919 in Tokyo. Since then during 30 years of his literary endeavor he had left behind vest literary heritage in various fields of literature except poetry and songs. His literary works which have been subjects of controversies by many critics and researchers have received very contradictory reviews from both extremes i.e., one side accepting them wholeheartedly whereas the other side rejecting them categorically. Through this research the writer has reached the conclusion that such interpretation of his works by both extremes regardless whether they were favorably or unfavorably disposed to Kim, Dong In's works were usually too deeply involved with extra-literary aspects (for instance, autobiographical elements such as his personality, environment and private life style) thus unable to provide accurate portrayal of them. Consequently, in this treatise the writer abided by the principle of "Return to the Texts" and analyzed the works themselves and searched characteristics of Kim, Dong In's works from them only. Since volume of his works are so stupendous and genres are so diverse the writer intentionally confined the subject matter of the study to Dong In's 48 short stories up to the year of 1941. Instead of taking piece by piece analysis approach the writer took comprehensive one being concerned with search of the author's consistent literary bearings, his descriptive styles and ways of perceptions as revealed throught his works. His favorite themes were new societies which stood in a formative stage with nondescript nature after collapse of traditional and feudal society. He portrayed sense of alienation from the established society by means of symbolism expressed through orphans, fatherless child and destabilized homes. Life in a society where sense of value had been destroyed had been portrayed by him through means of depicting life styles indulgent for gratification of physical desires therefore description of physical environment and sexual instincts were materials of his works which cropped up quite often. Figures who are struggling in the deep morass of degeneracy were frequently introduced and their frustrations, deaths and defeats were part of basic fabric of his yarn. Heroes who lost their paternal authority and who are listless, weak, and incapable but engage in destruction of women rather than maintaining their paternal authority were also described. In a conceptualized reality of colonial rule as expressed through K Baron, heros writhed in pains and sufferings because they realized that they could not be able to attain even a very simple hope of having a "Harmonious homes" in this desolate world; they sometimes indulge themselves in the manic pursuit of absolute beauty and at other times abandon themselves completely to physical gratification by sexual satisfaction however they were not able to climb over the walls surrounding them in many folds. It seemed that Dong In discovered sources of his hopes for the future in rural community rather than urban society and also in growing children. In his stories nature was described as revitalizing elements to weary and tired human beings; and he provided positive meaning to womanhood as mother and wife by handing over the baby to Komnae whom he described so negatively in the story. Dong In troubled himself with such basic trivialities as providing adequate names'' for the figures in his stories befitting to their characters ; he attempted to bring the nature of society into focus through introducing heros of 20s years old. His literary styles of staging the character who experiences frustration and defeats had been butt of criticism which claimed that he produced literature accomodative or sycophanic to the rules of colonialism rather than protesting and resisting them. But the writer considers such criticism about his works stemming from their scanning of superficial structure and furthermore reached the conclusion that Dong In was a writer who described the reality of his contemporary time as it is more than any other writers in his time.
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