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가톨릭 靑年의 宗敎性에 關한 社會學的 考察

Title
가톨릭 靑年의 宗敎性에 關한 社會學的 考察
Other Titles
(A) Sociological Analysis on the Religiosity of Catholic Youth
Authors
朴惠子
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육과정분야
Keywords
가톨릭 청년종교성대학생노동자가톨릭
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
一般的으로 사람들은 信者들의 宗敎性을 評價할 때, 그가 믿는 宗敎禮式에 參席하는 頻度나 宗敎그룹에 加入하여 活動하는 外的 行動에만 基準을 두고 있다. 그러나 J.Wach가 말했들이 宗敎性은 普遍的으로 3가지 要素를 內包하고 있으니 ,이는 理論的 要素인 믿음體系와 實踐的 要素인 儀式體系, 그리고 社會的 要素인 社會關係의 體系이다. 본 硏究는 宗敎性의 多數次元的 理論을 背景으로한 先行調査硏究를 基盤으로 한국 실정에 맞는 카톨릭 宗敎性 測定道具를 製作하여 이를 피조사자 카톨릭 靑年들에게 實施함으로써 尺度의 經驗的 檢證을 시도하는데 學術的 目的을 둔다. 尺度 製作을 위해 먼저 宗敎니 槪念을 풀이했으며 또한 宗敎性 測定을 可能케 하는 經驗的 指漂를 設定하였다. 本 調査硏究는 C.Glock-R.Stark와 E.Pin의 尺度를 基準삼아 宗敎性을 6次元, 즉 理念的 次元-Ideological Dimension, 儀禮的-Ritualistic, 體驗的-Experiential, 知性的-Intellectual, 所屬感-Belonging, 結果的-Consequential 次元으로 區分했다. 尺度道具의 構成方法과 內容은 크게 두 部分으로 나눌 수 있는데, Ⅰ部의 內容은 주로 피調査者의 一般的 性格과 獨立變因에 關聯된 28問項으로써 選擇肢-Alternatives에서 고르는 選多型式이며, Ⅱ部에서는 宗敎性의 6次元을 測定하는 經驗的 指標로써 Likert의 五段階 評定尺度法을 適用했다. 製作된 測定道具로, 서울市內 10個 大學校의 가톨릭 大學生 160名(男80, 女80)과 수원, 안양, 서울영등포지구, 구로공단에서 일하는 가톨릭 靑年勞動者 160名(男80 ,女80)을 피調査者로 標集하여 尺度의 經驗的 檢證을 위해 定立한 假設을 確證하였다. 資料分析 結果, "宗敎그룹의 加入은 加入者에게 '宗敎社會化의 場'의 機能을 遂行함으로써, 全般的으로 宗敎性을 높혀주며, 特히 外的 實踐要素를 內包하는 儀禮的 次元을 爲해서는 效果的인 手段이 된다"라는 前提를 立證했다. 또한 獨立變因 敎育水準과 經濟水準이 宗敎性에 미치는 영향에 對한 檢證으로써 가톨릭 靑年勞動者 集團은 大學生 集團에 比해 理念的 次元의 評点이 더 높을 뿐만 아니라 敎會에 對한 所屬感도 더 높음이 判明되었다. 性別에 依한 比較로써, 普遍的으로 女性은 男性보다 宗敎性이 높으며」感性的 要素를 內包하는 體驗的 次元에서는 男性보다 월등히 높고, 理念的 次元과 敎會所屬感토 男子보다 높다. 그러나 12歲 未滿으로 어려서 入敎한 사람과 커서 入敎한 사람들間에는 有意한 差가 보이지 않았을 뿐더러, 어떤 次元에서는 늦게 入敎한者 集團의 平均値가 더 높게 나타나고 있어 가톨릭 信者生活의 沈滯性이 暗示됨을 보았다. 가톨릭 靑年의 宗敎性에서도 宗敎 世俗化의 傾向을 證明해 주고 있는데 이는, 地方出身으로 現在 서울에 居住하는 가톨릭 大學生 集團이 서울에 자기집이 있는 學生集團보다 全般的으로 낮은 宗敎性을 보였다. 以上과 같은 調査硏究를 통하여 宗敎性의 多數次元的 理論을 確固히 하였으며, 特히 본 尺度의 經驗的 檢證을 통해 測定道具의 妥當性을 提示하였다. 본 硏究者는 檢證한 여러 獨立變因 가운데 宗敎性에 가장 많이 영향을 끼치는 宗敎그룹의 加入의 重要性을 밝혔다. 그러나 宗敎그룹의 加入이 加入者에게 '宗敎社會의 場'의 機能을 遂行함으로써 個人의 宗敎性을 높혀주는 手段이 될 뿐만 아니라, 한 걸음 더 나아간 宗敎그룹은 敎會가 그 使命을 다 할 수 있도록 敎會制度를 刷新시키는 促進劑 役割을 해야 한다고 提言했다.;Usually when people try to evaluate the religiosity of believers, special attention is paid to the frequency of attendance to religious ceremonies or, also, to membership in some specific religious denomination, so that the evaluation scale is settled on rather external activities. Nevertheless, as J. Wach pointed out so well, religious commitment consists fundamentally of three main factors: the theoretical factor or doctrinal system; the practical factor or ritualistic legislation; and the social factor or interhuman relations and organization. My research is based on this multidimensional theory of religiosity, in an effort to profit from the preceeding research studies. The main motivation in initiating this thesis is to perform an empirical verification of the scale to measure the religious commitment. To realize this purpose, first I define the concept of religion and to make possible the measuring of this abstract concept, I estabilish some empirical indicators. This research following the pattern set forth by C. Glock - R. Stark and E. Pin, divides religiosity into six dimensions; Ideological Dimension, Ritualistic Dimension, Experiential Dimension, Intellectual Dimension, Belonging Dimension and Consequential Dimension. In order to formulate this scale I followed the process of exploratory study, pilot study and pre-test in concise form. After establishing this, I examined the validity and relability of this scale. The questionaires is divided into two parts. In the first part I deal with the background variables of the selected sample and with independent variables. The method of this part is to choose one answer among the different alternatives for each question. In the second part I treat the empirical indicators for measuring the six dimensions of religiousness mentioned above, applying the method of the five levels of the Likert Scale. With this measurement I have verified the proposed hypothesis having as sample two kinds of population: One group of 160 catholic students of ten universities in Seoul(80 females and 80 males), and another group of again 160young catholic workers of the zone of Suwon, Anyang, Yeong Deung Po and the Industrial Estate of Ku Ro Dong, Seoul. According to the result of the analysis of the questionaires, the following hypothesis has been confirmed: "The participation in a religious group elevates the religiosity of the members through the function of 'the field of religious socialization' in particular for the ritualistic dimension, which includes the elements of exterior practices, and is an effective means for religious involvement". Another verification shows the influence on the religiousness of the subject, according to the independent variable of the level of education and economical position. In consequence, the population of Catholic workers appears to have not only a deeper belief, but also a stronger sense of belonging to the church than the population of university students. With respect to the difference of sex, generally females have a higher degree of religiousness than males. It emergers mostly in the experiential dimension because of its emotional element, but also is superior in the Ideological Dimension and in the Belonging Dimension. Another verification regarding the time of Baptism: Those subjects baptizied before the age of 12 do not show any differences in comparison with those baptized later on their adult years. In some dimensions, yet, the later group appears to have a higher 'Statistic Mean' than the first, so we could catch the stagnation of the religious life of Catholic believers. Also the tendency towards the secularization of religion among the Catholic youth comes out: The subjects who arrived in Seoul from other parts of the country, show a lower score of religious commitment in all dimensions when compared with the student which have always resided in Seoul. Through the results of the reasearch so far mentioned I have affirmed the theory of multidimensional religiosity. I have also demonstrated the validity of the scale with the empirical verification about the proposed hypotheses. I made clear that among the several independent variables, the membership into a religious group has a great importance and influence on the religiosity of the subject. But the membership into a religous group should hold the role not only to elevate the religiosity of the members through the function of the field of religious socialization but also, advancing a step ahead, shoul hold the role to promote the renewal of the institution of the church in order to fullful its original mission in our modern society.
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