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韓中日 三國 近代初期 新聞의 比較硏究

Title
韓中日 三國 近代初期 新聞의 比較硏究
Other Titles
(A) Comparative Study of Korean, Chinese, and Japanese Newspapers in the Beginning of the Modern Age
Authors
金明愛
Issue Date
1973
Department/Major
대학원 신문방송학과
Keywords
한중일근대초기신문비교매일신문
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Today, it is a known fact that a newspaper has a great influence upon the daily life of human being, politically, economically, socially, and culturally. Thus, it is worth to observe the first newspaper published as well as the stages of its growth. On the basis of the theoretical observations through the various referential literatures, the origination and the growth of the newspaper in Korea, China, and Japan-which had the close relationships with one another-at the early stage of the modern era are to be examined and studied comparatively in this thesis. The intended purpose of this study is to observe how the Korean newspaper at the beginning of the modern age had started and grown in the comparison with those of China and Japan, to perceive the significance of the existence and the value of our newspaper today through the thorough examination of its similarities and dissimilarities, and to contribute to the further development in the comparative study of the history of oriental journalism. The first newspaper issued and its growth at the earlier part of the modern era in the three countries, Korea, China, and Japan are categorized in the chronological order, according to the format and the characteristics of newspaper and are comparatively studied. Even though the comparison doesn't conform in every aspect, due to the facts that the year of the first appearance of the newspaper, its stage of introduction, and the internal affairs as well were different from one country to the other, a number of similaries are found in the process of its development. 1. In the observation of the first newspaper published in Korea, China, and Japan, as a preceding form in the pre-modern times, Chun Chiu in the era of Chou in China, Kibyulchi of Silla Era in Korea, and Sen Mei in Japan: all these had the characteristics of the official gazette. Further developed were the issues of the official papers, Ti Pao, Chao Pao, Hsiao Pao, Ching Pao, etc. in China. In Korea the official papers, Chu Bo, Cho Bo and also a non-official press Cho Bo were Published, and Yomiuri Kawaraban, which mainly carried cartoons was issued by the people. 2. In the modern age the conveyance of the concept of western newspaper to the orient was initiated by the missionaries and the traders from the west, who used newspaper as a means of accomplishing their ends. Thus, in this period the first issues of newspaper in Korea, China, and Japan were all managed by the foreigners: in China, Mr. Robert Morrison, a British, Published the Chinese Monthly Magazine in Chinese language in 1815, Mr.A.W.Hansard, also a British, Published the English edition of Nagasaki Shipping List and Advertiser in 1861 in Japan, and a Japanese Mr. Ooishi Tokuo issued Chosun Shinpo in Japanese here in Korea. 3. Following the newspapers published by the foreigners in those three countries, modern newspapers were launched by the hands of its native people. In 1862 Batavia Shinbun was issued irregularly by the Japanese government. In Han Kou, China, Ai Hsiao Mei published the daily press, Chao Wen Hsin Pao and the Korean government issued Hansong Sunbo, the trimonthly paper, in 1883. 4. As the culture changes and the society becomes more complicated, the ambition toward learning grows. In order to gratify the desire and to pursue the realities of life, the daily newspaper was brought into life. In 1858 suggested by Wu Ting Fang, Chung Ngoi San Pao, the first issue of daily press was published in Chinese at the Daily Press in Hong Kong. In 1870 the Yokohama Mainichi Shinbun in Yokohama, Japan and Maeil Sinmun (1898) by Yang Hong Mook, Yu Young Su Rhee Seung Man in Korea were published respectively. 5. The newspapers of political commentary which was mainly intended for the purposes of guiding public opinion and propagating the thoughts came to light, since the Korean, Chinese, and Japanese realized gradually the importance of newspaper and its powerful influence. In this sense, the Nisshin Shinjishi (1874) was published in Japan, where the new proposition of the political measures was released. After the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Kang Yu Wei and Liang Chi Chao published the Chung Wai Kung Pao in Pei Ching, China to Prese the New Deal Program, and in Korea the daily Press, Tongnip Sinmu was issued by Philip Jaisohn. 6. The typography was examined since it was closely related with modern newspaper. It was substantiated by the relics of printing from the past that prior to the modern age, the typography was developed only for the exclusive people of the feudal age, and that was why it couldn't be applied to the new type of modern printing which was more to the general public. Thus, the modern typography was brought in from the Occident. The art of modern printing was initially introduced in China in 1807 by the British missionary named Morrison, who put into prints a Dictionary of the Chinese Language. Around the year of 1850, the Dutch government shipped out all the necessary equipments of printing including a Stanhope-type printing machine and the types for the Japanese government. And in Korea the modern typography was brought in by purchasing a manual type printing machine made by a Japanese, Hirano and the lead types for theinitiation of the publication of the Hansong Sunbo.;오늘날 新聞이 政治·經濟 社會·文化 等 人間生活 全般에 걸쳐 미치는 영향은 實로 크다 하겠다. 그러므로 이러한 新聞의 發生과 그 發展過程을 考察해 봄도 意義 있는 일이라 하겠다. 本論文은 文獻을 통한 理論的인 背景으로, 古代에서부터 서로 밀접한 관계를 맺고 있는 韓中日 三國의 近代初期新聞의 發生과 그 發展過程을 考察하여 서로 比較硏究한 것이다. 이것은 우리나라 近代初期新聞이 中國·日本의 그것과 비교해서 어떻게 發生하여 發展되어 왔나, 그리고 그類似性과 相異点이 무엇인가를 糾明 함으로 現在 우리 新聞의 存在意義와 그 價値를 再認識하고, 앞으로 우리나라 東洋新聞史 比較硏究 分野의 發展에 조금이나마 기여하고자 하는 目的에서 시작한 것이다. 그리하여 韓中日 三國의 近代初期新聞의 發生과 그 發展過程을 新聞의 形態와 特徵에 따라 時代順으로 區分하여 比較硏究 하였는데, 이러한 比較方法은 韓中日 三國內의 특수한 國內事情과 함께 新聞發生年代와 導入過程의 차이로 서로 一致하는 것은 아니지만, 그래도 그 發展過程에서 많은 類似性을 발견하였다. 1. 韓中日 三國의 前近代的 新聞의 선행적 形態로서의 최초의 것을 考察한다면, 中國 周時代의 「春秋」와 韓國 신라시대의 「기별지」, 그리고 日本古代의 「宣命」으로서 모두 官報의 性格을 띄고 있었다. 이들이 發展하여 中國에서는 「邸報」·「朝報」·「小報」·「京報」 等 官保의 發行을 보게 되었고, 韓國에서도 「邸報」·「朝報」 等의 官保와 民間「朝報」가 발행되었으며, 日本 역시 그림을 主로 한 「讀賣瓦版」이 民間에서 發行되었다. 2. 西洋 現代新聞의 槪念이 東洋으로 전해진 것은 宣敎師·商人등의 西洋人들이 그들의 目的을 이행하려는 하나의 手段으로서 新聞을 사용하면서 부터 비롯되었다. 韓中日 三國의 近代初期新聞의 發生이 外國人에 의해서 이루어졌는데, 그 最初의 新聞을 年代順으로 살펴 본다면, 中國에서 1815年 英國人 Robert Morrison이 中文「察世俗每月統記傳」을 발행 하였고, 日本에서는 1861年 英國人 A.W.Hansard가 英文 「Nagasaki Shipping List and Advertiser」를, 그리고 韓國에서는 日本人 大石德天가 日文 「朝鮮新報」를 발행하였다. 3. 韓中日 三國에 있어서 外國人에 의한 近代初期新聞의 發生以後, 自國民 資本으로 경영하는 近代新聞이 發行되었다. 그 最初의 것으로 日本은 1862年 政府에서 不定期的으로「官報 바다비야新聞」을 발행하였고, 中國에서는 艾小梅가 漢口에서 日刊 「昭文新報」를, 韓國에서는 1883年 政府에서 旬刊 「漢城旬報」를 발행하였다. 4. 文化가 발달하고 社會가 복잡해 질수록 알려고 하는 욕구가 증가하였다. 이러한 욕구를 충족시키고 現實性을 추구하려는 目的으로 日刊新聞의 發行을 보게 되었다. 韓中日 三國의 最初의 日刊新聞으로 中國은 1858年 伍延芳의 건의에 따라 홍콩의 Daily Press에서 中文版 「中外新報」를 발행하였고, 日本에서는 1870年 橫濱에서 「橫濱每日新報」을, 한국에서는 1898年 梁弘默·柳永錫·李承晩 等이 「□일신문」을 발행하였다. 5. 韓中日 三國에서는 점차로 新聞의 價値와 그 영향력을 認識하게 되었으므로, 이것을 利用하여 與論을 지도하고, 思想의 전파를 目的으로 하는 政論新聞이 대두 되었다. 그 最初의 것으로 日本은 1874年 새로운 政策건의안이 발표된 「日新眞事誌」를 들 수 있고, 中國에서는 淸日戰爭이 끝난 1895年 康有爲·梁啓超 가 北京에서 變法自强政策을 目的으로 발행한 「中外公報」를, 韓國에서는 1896年 最初의 民間新聞으로 徐載弼이 창간한 「독립신문」을 들 수 있다. 6. 近代新聞과 印刷術의 서로 떨어질 수 없는 表襄關係에 있기 때문에 印刷術의 發展過程도 함께 검토하였다. 韓中日 三國의 近代以前의 印刷術은 現存하고 있는 그 유물로서도 증명되고 있듯이 實로 놀랄만한 것이었다. 그러나 이들은 封建主義時代에 특권층만을 대상으로 하여 발달한 것이기 때문에, 大衆을 對象으로하는 近代印刷術의 새로운 形態에 적용될 수 없었다. 그리하여 西洋에서 近代印刷術의 도입은 1807年 英國人 宣敎師 Morrison이 「中國語辭典」을 印刷出版함으로써 시작되었고, 日本에서는 1850年頃 和蘭政府가 Stanhope式 手引印刷機와 活字等 인쇄기계시설 一切를 日本政府에 보냄으로서 이루어졌다. 그리고 韓國에서는 「漢城旬報」의 발행을 목적으로, 日本人 平野가 만든 手動式活版機와 鉛活字 等을 매입함으로서 近代印刷術이 導入된 것이다.
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