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兒童·靑年의 自我意識의 發達에 관한 硏究
- 兒童·靑年의 自我意識의 發達에 관한 硏究
- Other Titles
- Development of Self-consciousness in the Adolescence
- Issue Date
- 교육대학원 교육학전공교육심리분야
- 아동; 청년; 자아의식; 작문분석
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 本 硏究는 兒童·靑年들의 健全한 成熟을 위하여 행동을 統合하는 것으로서 Personslity의 中心的 機能을 갖고 있다고 하는 自我意識의 發達 경향과 自我의 形成을 自己受容의 問題와 관련지어 考察해 오려는 것이다.
本 硏究에서 究明하려고 하는 問題는 다음과 같다.
1. 兒童·靑年들의 自我意識의 發達 양상
2. 兒童·靑年들의 自我像의 特徵
3. 自己에 대한 態度와 他人에 대한 態度와의 關係
4. 自我意識의 形成에 他人의 역할과 자기수용의 問題
이와 같은 것을 위해 本 硏究는 서울市內의 一般中高等學校 男女 2學年 學生 478名과 國民學校 5學年 男女 學生 120名에게는「나」에 대한 作文을 A. Jersild의 作文分析 基準을 인용하여 內容分析하고 또 지방에 있는 中高等學校 2학년 男女 學生 204名과 國民學校 5學年 男女 學生 67名에게는「나」에 대한 作文과 질문지 調査(東京大學, 吉川房枝. 1959)를 實施하여 內容分析한 결과는 다음과 같다.
1. 男女學生 모두 自我意識의 表現이 신체적·물질적인 面으로부터 社會的·精神的인 面으로 發達한다.
2. 學年이 높아 짐에 따라 적어도 의식상으로는 他人의 비판이나 평가를 그대로 받아 들이지 않는다는 態度이나 自己評價에 상당한 영향을 주고 있다.
3. 男女學生 모두 肯定的 비판 보다는 부정적 비판을 더 많이 의식하고 있다.
4. 他人에 대하여 肯定的 理解를 갖는 자는 自己에게도 肯定的, 적극적이며 他人에 대해서 부정적인 理解를 갖는 자는 自己에 대해서도 부정적, 소극적이라고 할 수 있다.
5. 자신에 대해서 관대하게 되면 他人에 대해서도 관대해 질 수 있다.
6. 他人의 評價나 態度가 自己評價에 큰 역할을 하며 自己受容의 問題와 관련된다.;In this study, an attempt was made to observe self-consciousness of students of primary, junior and senior high schools in relation to the problems of self-acceptance.
1) In what manner are the youth self-conscious? Primary, junior and senior high school students worte compositions under the subject "I" and gave answers to the question-naires made on the basis of two different categories- "agreeable self" and "disagreeable self". The result shows that the adolescent self-consciousness has as substance much that relates to the feelings and the attitudes toward other people, and that the number of students describing their on defects and self dissatisfactions are much greater than those who write about their own good points and their self-satisfactions.
2) How does their self-consciousness relate to the evaluation and the attitudes others have towards them?
In order to see how the criticism of other people influences the self-evaluation of the adolescent and how it is accepted, the writings of the young people on "Other People's criticism about me" were analyzed. It was revealed that those young people were two or three times more conscious of negative criticism than of positive criticism about them. It was also found that they accepted much more than half the criticisms of both kinds as holding true. The manner in which the criticism was accepted differed according to sex and school-grades and also according to the categories of people who criticized.
In order to see what relation there is between their consciousness of what other people thing of them and their attitudes towards themselves, a study was made of how they interpret other people's anger towards them, then investigated the relation between their Interpretation and their attitude towards their un good points and bad points. It was found that those who were positive in understanding other were inclined also to be positive towards themselves, and that those who were negative in their understanding of others tended to be negative towards themselves. From the point of view of age, it was observed that the younger the person the more inclined he was to interpret other people's anger as hostile towards himself.
In the research made on how they consider there own anger, differences were found according to their ages. There again, the same relationship as before was seen that those who were lenient towards others were lenient also towards temselves.
3) With regard to the assistance to be given to young people tn their problems of self-acceptance:
It was clear from the answers to the questionnaires that the greatest joy and sorrow, suffering or anger were frequently caused by approval or disapproval of other people. From this fact, it can be said that other people's criticisms and attitudes play a big role in the formation of self-evaluation of the youth. As a consequence. it is the author's opinion that to make them hold sound judgements upon other Peopler s criticism by means of the technique of compairing their own way of judgements and that of other people, role-playing and discussions, or changing values in "possible-self, " can be considered as means of helping the youth acquire healthy self-acceptance.
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