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초등학교 과학과 교육과정의 변천에 관한 연구

초등학교 과학과 교육과정의 변천에 관한 연구
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교육대학원 교육학전공교육과정분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
How the curriculum of the subject of science of our elementary school had been transitional from the time the modernistic school regulations were first established and promulgated in the age of Old Korea until the time of our Emancipation from Japan was observed to provide a basic material for the history of transition of the science education in our elementary school. For this, 1) general character of science education and the course of science education of contemporary elementary schools were investigated into, 2) the educational purpose of the elementary school and the policy on textbook publication from the times of Old Korea to the last stage of imperialist Japan were classified into ages to be looked in, 3) the curriculum of the subject of science of the elementary school was analyzed according to the gists of teaching Important findings revealed in this study are as follows : First, the subject of science ought to be an explorational study in which the concept of science is to be taken through an explorational process of observation and experience of nature. Second, it is considered that, during the period of the establishment of new school regulations in the Old-Korea age, only the purpose of study and the gists of teaching were suggested when the modernistic school regulations were established and promulgated, and that study was chiefly focused on the reading of Chinese writing because of the want of equipments and textbooks for the science course. During the period of implementation of school regulations, an initial approach to the education of science was attempted, and the textbooks were published in academic institutions in Japanese Language. Third, in the age of imperialist Japan, the general purpose was paid to assimulating the Chosea people, so the education of science was aligned to the education involving practical and laborious work, emphasizing the maximum of practicality. And, in the last stage of Japanese imperialism, teachers were ordered to teach the subject of science after consultation with the faculty of physical training and artistic accomplishments, for the successful completion of the War. Conclusions from the results of the study are as follows: First, The purpose of education changed according to the historical backgrounds, which had influence on significant points in the educational task, content, guiding method and leading principle. Second, he observation of common natural things and phenomena, the relation between science and human life, and the application of it into practical lives are matters commonly suggested in every age among the subject tasks of science education. Third, observation and simple experiments which make use of visual materials are such guiding methods os science education ad presented commonly in any age Fourth, since it was teached in Japanese from the time of implementation of the '2nd low of education in Chosen,' the science education in the times would have not been made successfully if Japanese had not been well understood by students. And, though the textbooks were those which were published by the Viceroy of Chosen, they would have had no other way but to use them as they were, no matter how inadequate they were to our people, due to local conditions, since they might use those from the Ministry of Education, but, if impossible to acquire them, they had to be approved. Thid study is of investigation into the transition of the science education in our elementary school from the year of 1985 to that of 1945. And is thought that it leaves a need to be followed by more advanced depth studies in the future. Some analyses of the textbooks of the subject of science of the elementary school classified by the times seem to serve as a quite beneficial means to the study of potential applicability.;본 연구는 구한국시대의 근대적 학교관제가 제정 공포된 시기로부터 우리나라가 해방되기까지의 사이에 초등학교 과학과 교육과정이 어떻게 변천되어 왔는지를 고찰하여 초등학교 과학교육과정 변천사에 기초자료를 제시하는 데 그 목적이 있다. 이를 위하여 구한국시대로부터 일제말기까지 초등학교 교육목적과 과학교육의 목표, 내용 및 지도방법을 교수요지에 따라 분석하고 이과 교수시수, 교과용 도서편찬 정책을 시대별로 비고 분석하였다. 본 연구에서 밝혀진 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 구한국시대의 신학제 수립기에 과학 교수요지만 제시되고 교과과정 및 교수시수는 제시되지 않았으며 과학 교과서는 없었고 통합되어 있었다. 둘째, 과학교육의 목표는 신학제 수립기로부터 제4차 조선교육령 시행기까지 '통상의 천연물과 자연현상에 관한 것, 인생의 관계에 관한 것'이 공통적으로 제시되고 있다. 셋째, 과학 교과과정 및 교수시수는 학교령 시행기에 처음 제시되고 어느시대에나 중학년이후부터 교수시수가 배당되었다. 과학수업시수는 역사적 배경에 따라 전교과에 대한 배당율이 달라졌다. 넷째, 과학교육의 지도방법은 어느시대나 공통적으로 관찰, 시각교재의 이용, 간단한 실험을 하도록 하고 있다. 다섯째, 교과용 도서편찬 정책은 구한국시대에는 학부에서 편찬한 것을 사용하거나 민간인의 저술, 번역물도 사용하였지만 일제시대는 조선총독부나 문부성에서 편찬한 것을 사용하게 하였다. 조선총독부나 문부성의 것이 없으면 조선총독의 허가를 받아서 사용하도록 하였다.
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