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國民學校 敎育課程 編制에 관한 分析的 硏究

國民學校 敎育課程 編制에 관한 分析的 硏究
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교육대학원 교육학전공교육과정분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
이 硏究는 現行 우리 나라 國民學校 敎育課程의 編制와 時間配當이 適切한 것인가를 밝혀 보고자 함이 目的이다. 이를 위하여 우리 나라 國民學校 敎育課程 編制의 變遷을 考察하고, 外國의 國民學校 敎育課程의 構造를 分析 檢討하며, 現場 敎師와 敎育關係者의 意見을 設問으로 調査 分析하였다. 이 硏究에서 밝혀진 주요한 事實을 들면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 敎科編制, 敎科名, 敎科目數, 學年別·敎科別 配當 時間量, 配當時間의 提示 形態 등이 傳統的인 慣習이나 固定的인 觀念의 支配를 받고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 둘째, 低學年의 敎科 編制는 統合化의 傾向을 나타내었으며, 特히 言語, 數理 등의 基礎 技能이 强調되어 있었다. 셋째, 우리 나라는 學校長에게 敎育課程 運螢의 재량권을 부여하고는 있으나, 基準 時間에 대한 加減의 재량권이나 時間 配當의 융통성이 弱한 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 現行 우리 나라 國民學校 敎育課程의 編制와 時間配當은 대체로 適切하다는 긍정적인 反應을 얻을 수 있었다. 다섯째, 大部分의 現場 敎師들이 低·中·高學年 모두 국어, 산수등의 '基礎技能敎科'가 重要하다고 認識하고 있었다. 여섯째, 低學年에 있어서 社會現象과 自然現象 및 기술·가정을 統合할 必要性이 要求되고 있었다. 이 硏究의 結果를 토대로 얻은 結論은 다음과 같이 集約해 볼 수 있다. 現行 우리 나라 國民學校 敎育課程은 編制와 時間配當에 있어서는 긍정적인 反應을 얻을 수 있었다. 그러나, 敎育課程은 그 基準 自體의 妥當性이나 適合性보다는 敎育課程 運營에 있어서 융통성과 자율성이 보장되느냐 하는 것이 敎育目標 實現을 위해 보다 重要한 變因이 될 것이다. 따라서 敎育課程의 效率性을 제고하기 위하여서는 첫째, 傳統的인 慣習이나 敎科에 따른 固定的인 觀念과 硬直性을 脫皮해야 할 것이며, 둘째, 低學年의 敎科編制에 있어서는 社會現象과 自然現象 그리고 기술·가정 敎科를 統合할 必要가 있으며, 셋째, 敎育課程 運營에 대한 指針이 자율성, 융통성, 탄력성을 充分히 보장받을 수 있도록 提示되는 것이 必要하다고 하겠다.;The purpose of this study is to find out the propriety of the curricular organization and class hour allocation of the elementary school in Korea. For this purpose, the following were worked out on the basis of the literature concerned : (a) the examination of the changes of the elementary school curricula, (b) a comparative study on the curricular structures of Korea and major foreign countries, (c) analysis of teachers' opinions on the present organization of curriculum and school hour allocation through the questionnaires. The important contents of the study constituted to achieve the above-mentioned purpose is as follows : 1. The propriety of domain classification in the elementary school curricula a. the expansion and establishment of new domains b. The increase and decrease of subjects and the unification and differentiation of their contents c. the domain division of extra-curricular activities d. the organizational improvement according to grade and subject 2. the propriety of the class hour allocation in the elementary school curricula a. the importance of subjects b. the increase and decrease of class hour allocation according to grade and subject c. the necessity of presenting the average class hours per week d. the appropriateness of the length of class hour The findings obtained through the study can be summarized as following : First, the type of domain division in a curriculum, the number of subjects, the amount of assigned class hour according to grade and subject, and the type of presenting assigned class hour, etc., are in the progress of 'fixation' : Second, the curricular organization of lower grades shows the tendency of 'integration', and the fundamental skills such as verbal and mathematical ones are especially emphasized. Third, a common feature is more portion of time is assigned on the fundamental subjects in lower grades, and that the class hour assignment becomes balanced in all subject as the grades are going up. Fourth, the national level curricula retain the characteristics as 'creteria' rather than 'standards', and, in general, the administration of curricula is left to the direction of the school principals. Fifth, present organization of curricula and class hour allocation are considered to be proper, according to the responses to the questionnaire. Sixth, most of teachers evaluate that 'the basic skill subjects' such as the Korea language and arithmetic are important in all grades, and the practical and moral subjects need to be cut down or integrated. Seventh, in the revision of curricular structure, the teacher's guide-books for instruction rather than the curricular notification are required to be further detailed, and gradual and partial revision is desirable. From the above research results, the following conclusions con be drawn : Present curricular organization and class hour allocation of elementary school in Korea are proper in general. However, to ensure the flexibility and self-regulation in the operation of curricula, (a) the documentary curricula of national level should obtain the characteristics of creteria rather than standards, (b) in curricular organization and class hour allocation, the conventional practices should be changed and fixed idea and sturdiness should be overcame.
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