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한국인의 문화간 커뮤니케이션 성향

한국인의 문화간 커뮤니케이션 성향
Other Titles
(The) Intercultural Communication Patterns of Koreans : in their Interpersonal Interaction with Foreigners
Issue Date
대학원 신문방송학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Korea has long existed as an isolated, self-contained nation and people. But it is no longer possible to stay a hermit country anymore in today's international and inter- dependent world, so that Koreans are becoming more and more active seekers of effective communication with foreigners. But there seems to be more than intent and effort, and even more than a common language required for effective communication. There is a need for a common orientation toward social values, human relationships, beliefs and philosophical views of self and the world. These and many other elements of ways of thinking, acting and communicating shared by a group of historically, geographically or temporally aligned people can be summed into the concept of culture. Differences in this shared understanding will undoubtedly impede communication. Although there is bound to be cultural differences in almost all communicative situations, albeit in negligible degrees in many cases, the study of intercultural communication concerns itself with understanding and explaining the communication process between people of perceptively different cultures. Communication between Koreans and other people of the world, especially of the western cultures, certainly involves the coming together of culturally different people. This research on the intercultural communication patterns of Koreans in their interpersonal interaction with foreigners essays to discover the cultural characteristics pertinent to Koreans that act as a communicative barrier in their interactions with foreigners. Some characteristics will probably be those that can be commonly identified among Asians, especially of the Northeastern part, and some may be peculiarities uniquely Korean. Beyond defining cultural characteristics of the Korean's communication behavior, it is the purpose of this thesis to formulate a coherent theory on intercultural communication processes that may be able to explain the intercultural encounters of people of different cultures, especially encounters of the blest and East. Recognizing the validity of qualitative research methods, especially in view of the research purpose of identifying and explaining an active and creative process rather than trying to "prove" a hypothesis, an open-ended interview method was used to obtain direct and unguided accounts of their observations and impressions with Koreans from 20 foreigners who have lived in Korea from periods ranging from 2 to 20 years. The following theory was formulated based on a constructivist approach and applying Grounded Theory as an useful methodology for "discovering an emerging theory" through the simultaneous and continuous process of constant comparison and verification of data and theory. The most pervasive cultural values of Koreans can be described as an emphasis on family unity and interdependence, esteem for hierarchy, order, and authority, preserving racial and national pride, having a good reputation and maintaining harmony. These values in a way reflect a more fundamental vlaue of totalitarianism opposed to the individualism of the West. In order to conserve the whole, be it the family, group or nation, individualistic. thinking and aspirations are discouraged. in order to maintain. harmony, at least superficially. Hence the "I- position" is discouraged. and the collective "we- position'' dominates opinions, thoughts , and emotions. This contrast of totalitarianism and individualism can also be seen as the ultimate. goal of the different patterns of thinking. In the West, because individuals are seen as basically equal, each person's thought is given an equal opportunity judged on it's logic and rationality, And clarity of opinion and expression is encouraged resulting in a dualistic expression of thoughts. The East and Koreans, on the other hand, emphasize authority and hierarchical positions to maintain order in the whole. An emotional "logic of the heart" is used instead of logical reasoning, putting an emphasis on the source of the communication, rather than the content of the communication, The Confucianistic teaching of loyalty, final piety and trust are all concepts of totalitarian "logic of the heart". In order to tone down the differences among members of the whole, direct, dualistic expressions are discouraged and quietness is considered a virtue, especially among women. Suppression of such explicit expression led to s relative sensitivity to and extensive use of nonverbal communication to convey a person's feelings. Nonverbal cues are usually expressed through facial expressions rather than body gestures. Another significant aspect of the Korean people that effects their intercultural communication attitude and behavior is their psychological State. As the psychological state of an individual would effect his communication behavior, so does the psychological state of a people effect their communication. Korea has had an exceptionally turbulent and traumatic historical past experienting Japanese colonial domination and a civil war resulting in the division of a people of the same race and culture. This historical background has probably caused the people of Korea to suffer from an emotional insecurity and low self esteem. Because of these cultural values Koreans hold a subdued reverant attitude in their communication, showing submission to authority, restrain from explicit and dualistic expression, falling a we-position accompanied by emotional nonverbal cues. But to the foreigners who receive this communication of their cultural values of individualism, egalitarianism, logical reasoning, clear cut and dualistic expression cause them to perceive Koreans to be status-conscious, formal, unforth-coming in expressing their thoughts and opinions, generalizing instead of being specific, uniform, avoiding discussions and confrontations, closed and emotional, thus making it "impossible to know what they are thinking and difficult to communicate." Foreigners expecially seem to find it difficult to catch the noverbal cues of Koreans. The psychological insecurity of Koreans surface In their intercultural communication in the form of self assertiveness, sensitivity to criticism, over responsiveness to praise (especially on a collective level), hypercriticism of others, imputation of responsibility, high degree of apprehension of communication.;세계가 점점 상호 의존적이 되고·문화와 역사적 배경이 다른 사람들간의 커뮤니케이션이 활발해지면서 문화간 커뮤니케이션에 대한 관심도 상대적으로 높아지고 있다. 그러나 우리나라에서는 아직 비교적 새로운 분야이어서 기존의 연구도 거의 없는 상태이다. 이런 학문적 상황을 의식하여 본 연구에서는 우선 문화간 커뮤니케이션 연구의 개론적 정리, 즉 개념의 정의, 연구의 발달과 연구의 실태에 대한 서술, 이론 구성과 연구방법에 관한 논의, 연구에 이용되는 대표적 관점 및 연구분야를 고찰하였다. 실제 연구에서는 구성주의 적 접근과 가치적 이론의 방법이라는 자료 수집과 분석, 이론구성 및 검증, 변형의 과정을 동시에 수행하여 “나타나는 이론을 발견하는” 방법을 시도하였다. 구체적 연구 방법으로는 한국에 거주하고 있는 외국인들에게 한국인들과의 대인 커뮤니케이션 과정에서 그들 느낀 점과 경험에 대한 자유 응답식의 인터뷰를 하였다. 20명을 인터뷰한 결과, 다음과 같은 문화간 커뮤니케이션 성향이 있음을 공통적으로 들을 수 있었다. l) 사회적 지위에 대해 민감하다. 2) 타협하기 힘들다. 3) 커뮤니케이션에 이기적이다. 4) 실수에 대해 솔직하지 않으며 비판에 과민하다. 5) 형식적이다. 6) 의견과 생각을 알기 힘들다. 7) 한국과 한국 것에 대해 지나치게 집착한다. 한국 것이 가장 좋다고 생각한다. 8) 가족 중심적이다. 9) 감정이 얼굴에 나타난다. 감정적이다. 10) 폐쇄적이다. 구성주의적 관점을 적용하여 보면, 이상 인터뷰에서 발견된 한국인의 문화간 커뮤니케이션 성향은 한국인의 전체주의적, 권위주의적, 위계주의적, 가족중심적 주정(主情)주의적, 상호의존적, 조화 유지적 문화적 가치관과 어려운 역사적 배경에서 기인하는 심리적 불안정으로 구성된 인지 구조에 의해 표출되는 커뮤니케이션 성향이라고 할 수 있다. 이러한 인지 구조를 통해 표현된 한국인의 권위존중적 태도, 조화 유지를 위한 자기 주장의 억제, 전체에 대한 의식, 이원적 답변의 회피, 침묵등이 서양의 개인주의적 가치와 논리적이며 이원적인 사고 방식으로 구성된 인지 구조를 통하여 해석될 때 서로 다른 이지 구조와 해석의 틀을 사용하는 데서 오는 커뮤니케이션의 장애가 있다고 할 수 있다.
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