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북한의 대비동맹 외교정책에 관한 연구

북한의 대비동맹 외교정책에 관한 연구
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교육대학원 교육학전공국민윤리교육분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
A concept such as North and South Korea's systemic rivalry in the situation of North-South division of the Korean Peninsula does well explain the realistic aspects of North Korea's foreign policy toward the nonaligned nations. That is, the point of North Korea's security by predominating over the South is subjected first. Since the theoretical aspect of North Korea'sforeign policy is emerged from the background of the revolutionary era, the unification of the Korean peninsula by communizing the whole peninsula is being emphasized in its practices. Main characteristics of North Korea's foreign policy toward nonaligned nations since 1975 could be summarized as follows; 1) The important target of North Korea's foreign policy toward the nonaligned nations is to raise the adunivation of its leader, Kim, 11 Sung into those nations, This can be traced both in the aspect of international advertisement for its self-esteem and then in that of returning of its advertishment into the North. 2) North Korea has concentrated its efforts on the nonaligned nations in order to raise their support to its "chuche" idea as a means to mobilize foreign support in the nonalizned nations. 3) North Korea did show some strenuous efforts to strengthen the solid arity of its anti-imperialism and anti-U.S.A. but also expressed its interest in economic development problems concerning the North-South cooperative economic system. Actual amount of the North's international trade has also been considerably increased. 4) North Korea promulgates independency, friend ship, and peace as the basic principle of its foreign policy. 5) North Korea proclaims itself officially that it belongs to the 3rd world. 6) North Korea encourages the North-South conference-that is, conferences between the developed and the undeveloped. In this paper, the Constitution of the North's self-pro-claimed chuche idea, which is abasis of North Korea's foreign policy toward the nonaligned nations, and the purpose of its foreign policy based on it were grouped together and the means and methods to realize the purpose of North Korea's foreign policy was concretely examined. In conclusion, since the international policy of each nation in today's international politics is more involved in realism rather than idealism, the pursuit of national self-interest rather than the common interest on the basis of ideological in clinations has become a main concern of North Korea. But North Korka is being more an more is olated from the international mainstream of the cunent would scene gradual-ly despite of itself fort to pursue realistic foreign policy.;남북한의 외교정책은 서로 상대적우위를 확보하기 위한 노력이라는 공통의 목표를 갖고 있다. 북한의 대외정책의 기폭은 대소·대중공외교에 두어져 왔으나 60년 후반에 소위 「자주노선」을 선언하면서 부터 양국가 관계에서는 중립을 유지하면서 중립제국은 물론 자유제국까지 적극적인 외교공세를 취하고 특히 비동맹에 대해 북한의 대외정책은 그 주류를 형성하고 있다. 지난 40년의 북한 외교는 국제사회로 부터 체제격리를 원칙으로 운영되어 온 것이 사실이 였다. 그러나, 부득이한 체제의 성격 때문인지 또는 어떤 전략적 선택에 의해서인지 북한이 80년 대로 접어들면서 대외 정책의 방향은 점차 수정하는 듯한 증상이 확연히 나타나고 있다. 본 연구는 북한의 대비동맹 외교정책의 근본이 되어 온 주체사상의 실체를 파악하고 남북한 체제경쟁을 연관 지으면서 이론과 현실에서의 문제점을 분석하는데 목적을 두고 있다. 따라서, 본론에서는 비동맹외교 전개과정을 진영외교기(1955-1965) 자주외교기(1966-1974) 성숙외교기(1975-현재)등으로 나누어 대내·외적 환경과 외교정책 성향을 알아보고 있다. 그 다음 북한 비동맹외교를 총체적으로 비판해 본다. 끝으로 「적화통일」에 이용해 보고자 하는 전략적인 착상이 바로 비동맹권이 였으나 주체사상을 중심으로한 김일성 신격한 이론등은 북한외교의 커다란 한계성에 이르고 있다. 즉, 1980년대로 접어들면서 대외정책 방향이 수정되어지는 것을 파악하는 것이 중요하다.
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