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7개 國家의 大學入試制度에 관한 硏究

Title
7개 國家의 大學入試制度에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
Comparative Analysis on system of College Entrance Examination of Each Country of the World
Authors
金鎬允
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
Keywords
대학입시제도7개 국가한국대학입시
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
윤종건
Abstract
Although the college entrance examination system of our country had been improved on every occasion of change of the top policy making person of culture and education, pending matters have been still accumulated, and the matters now not only extended to the matters of education, but also extracted as a social problem. The main purpose of this study is to intend to grope for concrete measures which could be the most reasonable college entrance examination, by having comparative analysis of polish and system of college entrance examination now under employment of other countries, and the matters of ours. When observing other countries' college entrance examination, as follows: 1) In the States, fundmentally the opportunity for higher education is opened, and the examination system is different, depend on each college and state. Such college being in increasement to use the result of examinations performed by either CEEB, or ACTP currently an independent examination institution, in the most of colleges. 2) In Japan fundamentally performs competitive examination by each college and in national, and public universities, combine the common 1st scholarship tests. 3) In Formosa, selects students, according to the national examination records, so called 'Middle Education Certificate Examination'. Selection of curriculum divides into A, B, C, D-team, and selects by computer. 4) In England, there are GCE and CSE examinations as graduate qualification examination of middle school, at the same time, college entrance qualification examination. The GCE again classified into 'A' and 'O' levels and one should pass 5 or 6 subjects, including 2 subjects of 'A' level to get college entrance qualification. 5) In France, after completing Lyce´e, a high school course should pass Baccalaureat examination, a generized examinations, sponsored by each regional education institution. This examination is the examinations for graduate of middle school and for college entrance qualification. As examination by subjects there are written and oral tests. 5) Government controlled entrance examination aimed to ensure justice of examination and choice of proper students. 6) Although the examination systems employed so far have derived many problems in the courses of enforcing them, rather to fragilities existed in the stru-true, but betterment of entrance examination system had always been accomplished the determination of polish in the direction of changing the system itself. When observing the points of matter of our current college entrance examination, as follows: 1) There are lack of confidence for the recommending school records, due to uniform reflection of records, and unjustice of calculation of recommending school records. 2) It is hard to judge correctly the higher mental efficiency for the settlement of questions of scholarship test are in the objective form as a whole. 3) It has become a choice of dispising aptitude, due to abolition of college interview, and reflection of grand-total of scholarship examinations, etc. 4) The college self-control has been forfeited, by application of recommendation system and scholarship examinations, only. 6) In West Germany, as a Gymnasium (Phonetic) completion test, there is so called Abitur, college entrance selection examination, performed by each Area, and school. It's a qualification test, and the test by subjects. When enumerating the characteristics, appeared as result of analysis in the course of transition of college entrance examination in our country, as follows: 1) The college entrance examination system in our country, has been practiced repeatedly, by single settlement of questions by each school, and national examination under control of government. 2) THe system of recommendation to exempt examinations could not gather its effectiveness, because of unreasonable control of recommend school records, and reflection of entrance examination. 3) Written examination was objective type multiple choice system, and we had lofty public opinions pointing that the system promotes momorizing education of fragmentary knowledge, only. 4) For the graduates of business high school, special benefits when promote to college course during winter season, has been continuously positive. 5) There is no establishment of professional control organization for entrance examination and study of scholarship examination. It is groped for, that the concrete measures be pursued for our current entrance examination, on basic of the result of survey of entrance examination system in other countries: 1) Presuming that the school report on purpil's record is properly made, the reference of it to the consideration of examination makes shall contine to be employed as standard of evaluation. 2) Taking into account that the current college entrance examination system depends entirely on the objective method of answering in writing, the thesis examination is recommended to be added to supplement the appropriateness and reliability of result of evaluation. 3) The automomy of college for its entrance examination must be recovered to substitute the general control by government in the entrance examination. 4) An organization which is wholly responsible for evaluation of scholastic ability and examination should be established so that adequate questions for examination can be given through it and the appropriateness and reliabity of evaluation can be enhanced. 5) The freedom for sutent to select subjects of examination and weighting on the individual subject which a student wants to take as his course must be worth while to consider.;韓國의 大學入試制度는 文敎政策 責任者가 바뀔 때마다 入試制度의 改善이 있었지만 그 問題點은 계속 누적되어 敎育問題로 限定되지 않고 杜金問題의 하나로 부각되었다. 韓國 入試制度가 갖는 問題點을 分析하고 오늘날 各國이 취하는 大學入學試驗制度를 비교 分析해 봄으로써 가장 타당한 大學入試訓度가 될 수 있는 具體的 방안을 모색하고자 하는 것이 硏究의 目的이다. 各國의 大學入試制度를 살펴보면 다음과 같다. 1. 美國은 原則的으로 高等敎育機會가 開放되어 있으며 大學 및 州에 따라 銓衡方法이 다르다. 現在 대부분의 大學에서 獨立的 試驗機關인 CEEB(College Entrance Examination Board) 또는 ACTP(American College Testing Program)에서 實施하는 試驗 結果를 利用하는 大學이 增加하고 있다. 2 . 日本은 原則的으로 大學別 競爭試驗을 실시하고 있으며, 國·公立大學에서는 共通第一次 學力試驗을 겸하고 있다. 3. 自由中國은 "中等敎育證書試驗"라는 國家考試 成讀에 의해 學生을 選拔한다. 學科 選定은 甲·乙·丙· 丁組로 나누어 지원하고 컴퓨터에 의해서 선발한다. 4. 英國은 中等學校 率業資格試驗인 동시에 大學入學資格試驗 으로 GCE(General Certificate of Education) 시험이 있다. GEC시험은 다시 " A "수준과 " 0 "수준으로 나누며 " A "수준의 2料目을 포함한 5·6科目의 試驗을 合格해야 大學入學資格을 갖게된다. 5 . 프랑스는 高等學校 과정인 Lyce′e를 마치고 各 地方 敎育區에서 주관하는 綜合試驗인 Baccalaure′at 시험에 合格해야 한다. 이 시험은 中等學校 卒業 및 大學入學資格試驗이며 科目別 시험으로서 筆記試驗고 口頭試驗으로 나누어 실시된다. 6. 서독은 大學入學 선발시험인 Abitur로 일컬어지는 김나지움 수료시험으로서 各 地域別·學敎別로 실시되고 있다. 資格試驗이며 科目別 試驗이다. 韓國 大學入試制度는 변천과정을 분석한 결과 나타난 特徵을 열거하면 다음과 같다. 1. 우리나라의 大學入試制度는 學校別 단독출제와 국가관리의 국가고시가 반복되 실시되었다. 2. 內申制를 實施하는 무시험 전형은 內申成績 管理 및 入試反映上의의 不合理性으로 효과를 보지 못하였다. 3. 筆答試驗은 客觀式 選多型으로 出題됨으로써 단편적지식의 암기 교육만을 조장한다는 여론이 높았다. 4. 實業界 高校 出身의 同系 大學 進學時 特惠부여는 계속적으로 양성되어 왔다. 5. 입시의 국가관리는 시험의 공정성확보 및 入學 적격자 선발을 目的으로 시행되어 왔다. 6. 지금까지 採擇되어 온 入試制度는 制度 自體가 구조적인 취약점을 갖고 있기 보다 시행과정에서 여러 가지 문제를 파생시켜 왔으나 入試制度 改善은 제도 자체를 바꾸는 方向에서 政策 決定이 이루어져 왔다. 현행 우리나라 大學入試制度의 問題點을 살펴보면 다음과 같다. 1. 內申成績 산출의 불공평성과 일률적인 반영으로 인한 內申成績에 대한 불신감이 있다. 2. 學力考査 出題問項이이 전부 客觀式으로 되어 있어 高等 情神能力을 판정하기 어렵다. 3. 學力考査 총점반영, 대학의 면접고사 폐지등으로 적성을 무시한 선발이 되고 있다. 4. 學力考査와 內申成績만의 적용으로 大學의 自律性이 상실되었다. 5. 學力考査 硏究 및 入學試驗 전담관리기구의 설치가 안되어 있다. 각국 입시제도의 비교 분석을 바탕으로 현행 입시제도는 다음과같이 수정·보완되어야 할 것이다. 1. 고교 내신성적의 반영은 내신성적의 합리적 산출을 전제로 계속 실시될 필요가 있다. 2.. 대학입학 학력고사는 시험 유형 客觀式 筆答考査뿐인 점을 고려 시험의 타당성 및 신뢰성을 높이기 위해 論文試驗이 보충이 연구되어야 한다. 3. 大學入試에 대한 국가의 일률적인 통제를 지양하고 대학의 自律性을 인정해야 한다. 4. 대학입시 평가의 타당도와 신뢰도를 높이기 위하여 학력평가 및 시험전담기구를 설치하여 시험문제를 출제하도록 해야 할 필요가 있다. 5. 각 과목별 응시와 지원학과에 따라 과목별 가중평가제를 연구해 볼 필요성이 있다.
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