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北韓의 靑少年에 대한 政治思想敎育에 관한 연구

北韓의 靑少年에 대한 政治思想敎育에 관한 연구
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교육대학원 교육학전공교육과정분야
북한; 청소년; 정치사상교육; 고등중학교
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
本 硏究의 目的은 北韓의 政治思想敎育의 目標와 內容을 高等中學校의 敎育課程을 中心으로 分析하므로써 우리의 反共敎育을 再考해 보고자 한다. 本 硏究의 方法은 文櫶硏究로서 統一硏修所·北韓問題硏究所 등에 비치된 北韓의 思想敎育資料와 각종 先行論文을 참조하였다. 硏究結果는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 北韓 政治思想敎育의 特徵은 敎育을 政治的 目的 達成을 위한 手段으로 여기고 黨의 감시를 강화하고 있으며 각 個人으로 하여금 他律的으로 政治性向 및 態度를 배우도록 강요하고 있다는 점이다. 둘째, 政治思想敎育의 目的은 靑少年들을 「共産主義的 새 人間」으로 만드는데 있으며 이는 共産主義化·革命化·勞動階級化라는 三化를 그 基本原理로 한다. 셋째, 政治思想敎育을 위하여 北韓이 취한 政策은 다음과 같다. ① 傳統文化와 家庭敎育機能의 抹殺 ② 政治思想敎育의 優先 政策 ③ 敎育에 대한 黨의 監視와 統制의 强化 네째, 政治思想敎育의 方法으로 集團의 原理, 競爭의 原理, 自我批判의 原理, 統制와 自制의 原理, 公開的 賞罰의 原理, 組織化의 原理 가 있다. 다섯째, 北韓의 모든 敎育體系는 勞動黨의 統制下에 있으며 따라서 敎育政策의 수립과 총괄적 指導·統制도 勞動黨이 관장한다. 여섯째, 敎科書와 각종 集團活動, 運事訓練, 義務敎育 등을 통한 政治思想敎育의 內容은 金 日咸 偶像化, 共産主義 敎養, 批判精神, 階級意識의 고취 등이 대부분을 차지하고 있다. 일곱째, 多情多感한 學生들에게 非生産的인 思想의 發達 可能性을 일체 배제하고 技術敎育을 强化하고 있다. 이같은 北韓의 政治思想敎育의 결과 학생들은 道具的이고 盲目的인 人間으로 길러지고 나아가 民族 異質化의 위협이 심각해지고 있다.;The purpose of this theses lies in providing data for democratic education in Korea through analysis of objectives and contents of political ideological indoctrination focusing on North Korean middle/high schools. To accomplish such purpose of the study, I refer to North Korean ideological indoctrination data and various published dissertation stocked at National Unification Research Center-North Korean Problem Research Center. The results of study are as follows: First, the characteristic of North Korean political ideological indoctrination is to turn education into a tool for achieving political objective; supervision and control upon the education has been strengthened; it take a form of coercion for cing students to learn other-directed political orientation and attitude. Second, the purpose of political ideological indoctriantion resides in producing "New Communication, revolutionization of whole population and inducing them into the labor class. Third, the policies taken for political ideological indoctrination are as follows: 1) Eradication of traditional culture and function of home as a place of learning. 2) Policy with prime emphasis on the political ideological indoctrination. 3) Strengthening supervision and control over education by the party. Fourth, as methods for political ideological indoctrination there are principles of mass, competition, self-criticism, control and self-control, open rewarding and penalizing and principle of organization. Fifth, the control of whole educational system of North Korea lies in the hands of the North Korean Communist Party, consequently the party held in its grip the power of establishing, directing and controlling educational policy. Sixth, most of contents of texts and political ideological indoctrination through instruments of mass organization, military training and compulsory labors overflow with the materials idolizing Kim, Il-sung. encouraging inculcation of the Communistic culture, critical mentality and consciousness of class revolutions. The following conclusion' have been drawn from the above study: 1. The effects of political ideological indoctrination on the North Korean youth. a. It tends to produce a blind personality type adept at becoming human tools. b. It is feared that a serious national alienation would result out of North Korean educational policy going against the identity-building, of Korean nation as a whole. 2. Countermeasures against the ill-effects of political-ideological indoctrination. a. By informing people of the real objectives which are pursued by the Communists in the North through a correct understanding of the reality of the North Korean education, we should put a high-quality education into practice to be ready against any contingencies. b. Subjects to help students correctly understand the true identity of Kim, Il-sung should be included in the texts of various levels of education, so that students can be protected from the temptation of communists.
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