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중학교 진로지도의 방법 및 효과에 관한 연구

Title
중학교 진로지도의 방법 및 효과에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Methods of the Career Guidance and Its Effectiveness in Middle School
Authors
강순자
Issue Date
1986
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
Keywords
중학교진로지도방법효과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
백명희
Abstract
진로지도는 생애교육의 일환으로써 다양한 직업세계에 대한 경험을 통해서 자신의 적절한 진로를 자아개념과 연결시키고 점진적으로 잠재능력을 개발해 나감으로써 장차 만족스러운 직업생활을 돕고 자아실현을 통해 국가적으로 고도산업사회에 공헌할 수 있는 인력을 개발한다는 점에서 중요한 의미를 갖는다. 따라서 본 연구는 중학교의 단계에서 자신의 여러 가능성에 대한 자기이해를 높이고 직업 및 직종을 탐색하는 기회를 신장시키기 위한 다음과 같은 조사를 통해서 앞으로 중학교 진로지도의 활성화를 위한 기초자료로써 활용토록 하는데 그 목적이 있다. 본 연구에서는, 첫째, 진로교육의 이론적인 배경을 고찰하고, 둘째, 현재 중학교에서 실시하고 있는 진로지도의 방법과 효과를 찾으며, 세째, 중학교의 진로지도가 학생에게 미친 영향을 검토함으로써 효과적인 진로지도 방법의 순위를 비교 제시하며, 넷째, 위의 진로지도 실태를 남·여별, 인물·실업별, 공·사립중학교 출신별로 어떤 차이가 있는가를 비교·분석하는 것을 내용으로 하였다. 본 연구는 문헌연구와 조사연구를 통하여 수행되었으며 중학교 진로지도의 실제와 그 효과를 검증하기 위하여 서울시내 남·여 고등학교 1학년 학생 585명을 대상으로 과거 중학교에서 받은 진로지도에 대하여 질문지 방법을 사용하였다. 본 연구에서 발견된 사실은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 남·여, 인물·실업계, 공·사립중학교 출신에 관계없이 대다수의 학생들은 진로지도의 필요성을 느끼고 있었으나 그 이해정도가 매우 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 중학교에서의 진로지도 방법이 다양하게 활용되지 못하고 있어 진로지도 방법에 따른 도움의 정도가 낮게 나타났다. 세째, 중학교에서의 진로지도를 통해서 학생들은 전체적으로 많은 영향을 받았다고 하였다. 네째, 진로정보를 얻게되는 과정에서 학생들은 부모·가족으로부터 가장 많은 영향을 받고 있음이 나타났다. 다섯째, 학생들의 진로결정 정도가 매우 낮게 나타났다. 위에서 나타난 결과를 종합하여 진로지도의 실태를 진단해 볼 때 첫째, 학생들은 진로지도의 중요성을 많이 느끼고 있으며 진로지도를 통해 영향을 많이 받고 있음을 알 수 있다. 둘째, 그런데 현재 학교현장에서는 학생들의 요구에 맞는 진로지도를 구체적이고 조직적으로 해 주지 못하고 있다. 세째, 상황에 맞는 효과적인 진로지도 방법을 제대로 활용해 주지 못하고 있다. 네째, 위의 문제점들이 곧 학생들의 진로결정 뿐만 아니라 학생자신의 생애교육에 차질을 안겨주는 요인이 되고 있다. 다섯째, 학생들의 진로결정 과정은 가족 및 부모에게서 가장 영향을 받고 있는 것으로 보아 학교에서의 체계적인 진로지도가 적극적으로 전개되어야 하며, 사회적 체제에서 학부모의 진로교육이 강조되고 있다. 앞으로 더 보완되어 연구해야 할 과제로는 진로지도 방법 및 효과에 관한 학교현장에서의 실험적인 연구와 구체적이고도 체계적인 자료개발 보급이 시급히 이루어져야 하며, 전문적 교육을 담당할 진로교육교사의 양성과 학교이외의 가정 ·지역사회·국가적 차원에서 학생들의 진로지도에 대한 교육적 관심을 불러일으키는 계도활동이 뒷받침되어야 하겠다.;A career guidance is a kind of education in its efforts to solve the following 4 problems for the purpose of enhancing the student's capability of selection for right course for higher grade education advancement and a career occupation in the future. The 4 problems are as follows: 1, Enhancement of the quality of integrated and career education. 2. Contribution to the society through self-development and realization. 3. A maximum utilization of human resources by utmost development of individual ability, and 4. Development of student's capability which help them adjust to the rapidly changing environment caused by high technology innovation and severe competetion. This study is designed to provide basic direction and proper information which will contribute to the vitalization of career guidance. Therefore, this study is to find out right direction of career guidance by analyzing the present situation of career guidance and its effectiveness in school through questionaire survey. The results of the study will greatly contribute to the enhancement of understanding student's potentials and to cultivating their ability of evaluating and selecting their career occupation fitting to their ability at earlier level of middle school days. The purpose of this study is as follows: 1. To find out the most appropriate methods of career guidance and its effectiveness at middle school level, 2. To conduct comparative analysis on the actual situations of career guidance by the distinction of sexes, types of school, senior high or vocational and public or private school, In this study, a theoretical research and questionaire survey were conducted. Questionaires were given to 585 students of the first grade of 10 high schools randomly selected among the high schools in Seoul city. The summary of survey results is as follows: 1. Regarding the consciousness of career guidance, most students who replied heard and knew the terminology of career guidance, but it was revealed that their real understanding of the meaning was very poor. However, their response to the necessity of having career guidance was positive, regardless of sex distinction, nature of school such as senior high or vocational, and public or private schools. Particularly, girl students were more positive than boys, students from vocational or private schools showed more positive than students from public or senior high schools, 2. Reviewing the degree of effectiveness according to the type of career guidance, even though little differences between sexes and among students answered, the analysis showed that in general the methods of career guidance such as self-evaluation, school radios, teacher's instruction and text books relatively contributed to the development of career occupation better than any other methods of career guidance, 3. Analyzing the effectiveness of career guidance in middle school, most responded students, without differences of sexes and the nature of students graduated from various type of schools, recognized the effectiveness of career guidance in middle school, 4. Correlation between career guidance method and its effectiveness: It is understood that the above mentioned career guidance methods contributed to the student's career developments. Therefore, correlation between method and its effectiveness showed relatively great. 5. Receiving process for career guidance information It is indicated that most students, regardless of sexes and student's origin, largely depended on their parents and families about the career guidance information. Source of information from their relatives was negligible. 6. Degree of career decision making ability The degree of career decision to be made by the students themselves for their own career occupation seems to be low regardless of sexes and student's origin, though very little differences existing between girls and boys. Conclusion A conclusion is derived from the results of theoretical research and questionaire analysis on the problems of selection for career guidance methods and its effectiveness in the middle school, as described above. Reviewing the results, it is understood that most students who responded to the questionaire realized not only the necessity of having career guidance but also its contribution to the career developments in making their decision for career occupation in the future through career guidance availability in the middle school. However, the present career guidance has conducted in the way of not only being lack of systematic and specific guidance but also being unable to meet the needs of student's requirements in developing their own career occupation in the future. Furthermore, the selection of career guidance methods was not properly made to meet the actual requirements and was lack of flexibility in conducting career guidance to adjust to the changing environments. Such problems mentioned above exercised as negative factor to the career development for the students and to the student's life-long education because of lack of appropriate career guidance being conducted at middle school levels. Taking into consideration of these factors, it is recommended that career guidance in the school, with the help of home career guidance, should be oriented toward the maximization of self-development and realization through various methods of career guidance which will meet to the student's characteristics and potentials and to changes of circumstances. At last, it is suggested that an experimental research and analysis on career guidance methods and its effectiveness in school education as a supplement to this study should developed and conducted in the future and also career guidance teachers should be cultivated through specialized and intensive education. In addition, consciousness of career guidance except for the school education should be renewed by means of enlightenment activities.
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