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中·蘇紛爭과 北韓의 態度 變化

Title
中·蘇紛爭과 北韓의 態度 變化
Other Titles
(The) Sino-Soviet dispute and the chage of the North Korea's Posture
Authors
宋文子
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공국민윤리교육분야
Keywords
중소분쟁북한태도변화
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
홍순호
Abstract
1956년 社會主義에 이르는 다양한 길을 主唱하떤서 資本主義와 社會主義간의 평화공존을 標榜한 흐루시초프(Nikitas. Khrushchev 1894-1971)는 스탈린(Josif Vissarionovich Stalin 1879-1953) 격하운동과 더불어 스탈린식 공포정치를 공공연하게 否定함으로써 共産主義史에 일대 轉換點을 마련하여 中·蘇紛爭을 비롯한 共産主義의 다원화 현상을 유발시켰고, 脫이데올로기 라는 국제기류를 야기시켰다. 中·蘇紛爭속에서 北韓은 자신의 實利追求를 위하여 1966년 "自主路線"을 宣言하였으며, 中·蘇等距離關係 유지에 부심하였다. 그리고 兩國으로부터 경쟁적인 지원과 압력의 대상이 되어왔다. 그러므로 中·蘇關係는 北韓의 對中·蘇政策 및 對南政策을 형성하는 중요한 要素로서 中·蘇關係의 새로운 향방은 東北아시아의 정치질서 및 군사적 均衡에 커다란 變數要因으로 작용할 것이 확실하다. 本 硏究는 中·蘇紛爭의 실체를 把握하고 이에 대처하는 北韓의 政策變遷과 문제점을 分析하는데 目的을 두고 있다. 따라서 本論에서는 中·蘇紛爭의 歷史的 背景을 考察함에 있어, 紛爭의 發端은 무엇이었으며, 이데올로기적, 領土的紛爭이 國家利益의 衝突이란 분쟁양상으로 발전된 과정과, 특히 兩國의 世界革命戰略은 어떻게 다른가 살펴보고 있다. 그 다음 中共政權 수립이후부터 1970년대 까지 中·蘇紛爭의 변천은 兩國의 政治·經濟·軍事面에서의 마찰과 異見이, 理念紛爭으로 發展되었고, 양국의 紛爭이 적접대결에서 全世界的인 영향력 경쟁으로 확산되었다. 끝으로 1945년 北韓 共産政權 수립이후부터 1985년 까지 北韓의 對中·蘇政策은, 經濟的·軍事的·政治約·기타 現實的 동기에서 "자주노선"과 對中·蘇等距離 外交政策을 추구하고 있다. 이상과 같이 전개된 中·蘇紛爭과 北韓의 對應자세를 통하여 볼때 中·蘇의영향력 행사는 北韓의 대내외 政策을 결정하는 重要한 要因으로서 中·蘇의 움직임을 把握하는 것이 중요하다.;In 1956, advocating various means of attaining ultimate goal of the socialism and seeking for coexistence of the socialism and capitalism, Nikita Khrushchev enforced his campaign to obliterate the Stalin's status. oppressive and dreadful ruling in public as Stalin. At the same time Khrushchev pursued the same Thus these unjust practices not only brought a turning point in the communist history but also caused dispute between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Peoples Republic of China. Further these unjust acts caused diversification phenomenon of the communism and placed the international baloon of deideological concept in the air. The North Korea declared its "independent line" to pursue its self interests during the China-Soviet feud and has suffered great pains to maintain distanced relationship with both countries in 1966. However, the North Korea received economic assistances as well as great pressures from both countries. Therefore, it is certain that relationship between China and Soviet played an important role in influencing formation of the strategy and policies of the North Korea for the relationship with China and Soviet as well as with the South Korea. The relationship acted as variable factors for the North Korea to untake new direction of its relationship with both countries, political order and military balance of the north east Asia. The purpose of this study is to determine the reality of the China-Soviet feud and to analyze changes in strategy and policies of the North Korea in its efforts to counter the feud. Accordingly, in contemplating historical background of the feud, the emphasis of the study is concentrated on what the main cause was, how ideologic and territorial feud progressed into conflict of the national interests, and especially what difference there in ' the strategy of the world revolution. Then, from the establishment of the Chinese regime to the 1970s, the conflict and the different opinions of the Sino-Soviet in politics, economics, and military have developed into the ideological dispute in the course of changing the dispute of China and Soviet, and have diffused from the direct conflict to the world-wide competition of influence. Finally, the policies of the North Korea for both China and Soviet pursue "independent line" and the policy of dealing equally with both countries due to the motivations economic, military, political, and realistic, etc, since the establishment of communist regime of the North Korea in 1945 to date. From the viewpoints of the studies on China-Soviet conflict and the corresponding posture of the North Korea, exercising the North Korea's influence on China and Soviet is a important fact deciding the domestic and international Policies of the North Korea. Consequently, It is very important to understand the trend of China and Soviet.
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