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유아의 문제해결 방법과 어머니의 문제해결 관여에 관한 연구

유아의 문제해결 방법과 어머니의 문제해결 관여에 관한 연구
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(A) comparative study per children's problem-solving method and per mother's intervention for the problem-solving
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교육대학원 교육학전공유아교육분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
하나의 유아가 독립된 사회의 한 일원으로서 사회가 요구하는 역할을 할 수 있기까지에는 내적인 성장, 외적인 도움이 끊임없이 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 Wertsch의 연구를 토대로 하여 유아의 연령 증가와 문제 해결 능력과의 관계, 또 유아의 연령 증가와 사고 및 인지 과정에 많은 영향을 미치는 어머니의 관여가 문제의 해결과 어떠한 관련을 갖고 있는 지 알아보고자 하였다. Wertsch는 18쌍의 유아와 그의 어머니를 대상으로 어머니와 그의 유아로 이루어진 한 조가 퍼즐 모델을 참고하여 같은 퍼즐을 맞추어 끼우는 과제를 해결해 가는 방법을 연구하였다. 본 연구의 대상은 원주 시내에서 버스로 15분 거리에 위치한 공군 아파트 단지 내의 중류 가정의 유아 18명과 그의 어머니 18명이다. Wertsch의 퍼즐 도구와 연구자가 제작한 유아 반응 빈도 기록표를 도구로 사용하여 두 명의 여성 실험자가 각 유아의 가정을 방문하여 관찰 실험하였다. 관찰 내용은 녹음기와 두 실험자의 기록지에 기록하였고 결과는 t검증과 일원 변량 분석으로 처리하였다. 연구의 결과 유아의 연령이 증가할수록 스스로 과제를 해결하는 능력이 높아 졌으며 또한 유아의 연령에 따라 어머니의 문제 해결을 위한 전략적 관여의 효과도 차이가 있었다. 본 연구는 시내에서 떨어진 공군 아파트의 유아를 연구 대상으로 하였음으로 외적 환경이 풍부한 돈의 중, 상류층의 유아와 비교 연구해 볼 가치가 있다고 생각된다.;This study is based on the study of Wertsch, McNamee, Joan, and Nancy(1980). It investigated the way that mothers and their preschool children divided up the strategic responsibility for carrying out a problem-solving task which involves making a puzzle in accordance with model. Eighteen mother-child dyads participated in this study were comprised of middle class children who are living in Airforce apartment, Won-Ju and their mothers. The tools used for this study were the materials which was made by Wertsch, McNames, Joan and Nancy (1980). Two female experimenters called at subject's house and carried out experiments. The interactions of 18 mother-child dyads were recorded with recorder and coded in table. The results of this study are as follows : (1) With an increasing age, there was a decrease of the problem-solving regulated by the adult and thus self-regulated strategic behavior was increased. (2) with a change of age, there was a change on the effect of mother's regulation. In playing with warming-up puzzle all of the 4(1/2)-year-olds as well as 83.3% of the 3(1/2)-and 2(1/2)-year-olds completed it correctly. All of the 2(1/2)-year-olds carried out gazes at mode which regulated by mother, a few of 3(1/2)-none of 4(1/2) year-olds in noncarge episodes. The frequency of gaze per noncargo episodes varies widely among the 2(1/2) year-olds. The difference among the three groups was not significant in these data, (F(2.15) = 0.99, P>.05) The mean number of children's gaze to the model per cargo episodes was 5.22, whereas the much number of children's gaze to the model per noncargo episodes was 1.05. This difference was significant (t=4,995, P<.005). The fact that the children consulted the model more frequently during cargo than during noncargo episodes was partly attributable to the fact that the mothers made more attempts to get the child to consult the model during the cargo episodes. This result agreed with the Wertsch's study. So as measuring the cargo episodes we can find the differences of the children's problem-solving ability and the effect of the strategic behavior of mother's regulation. Children from different age group did not have the same understanding of the strategic significance of the gaze behavior. When working with younger children, the mothers frequently gave the information from the model whereas older children could make appropriate use of this information without adult assistance. Even though the mothers may have been requesting the younger and older children to carry out the same behavior (eg: look at the model.), the younger ones apparently did not interpret the adult's communicative moves as going about strategic actions appropriate for a particular goal, whereas the older ones did. The subjects of this study are living in rural town. It may need further research for a comparison with the child of high class and the middle class living in cities.
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