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초등학교에서의 창의성 교육에 대한 교사의 인식

초등학교에서의 창의성 교육에 대한 교사의 인식
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교육대학원 초등교육전공
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
본 연구는 창의성 교육에 관한 초등학교 교사들의 인식을 질문지법에 의해 조사·분석하여 교육현장에서 창의성 교육을 실시하고 있는 교사들의 인식을 파악하고, 바람직한 창의성 교육의 방안을 제시하는데 필요한 기초자료를 제공하고자 한다. 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위하여 설정된 구체적인 연구 문제는 다음과 같다. 1. 초등학교 교사들은 창의성 의 특성에 대해 어떠한 견해를 가지고 있는가? 2. 초등학교 교사들은 창의성 교육의 실제에 관해 어떠한 인식을 가지고 있는가? 1) 학습자의 창의성 신장을 위해 교사가 가르치고 있는 내용은 무엇이라고 인식하고 있는가? 2) 학습자의 창의성 신장을 위해 교사가 주로 사용하는 방법은 무엇이라고 인식하고 있는가? 3) 학습자의 창의성 교육의 효과 정도를 측정하기 위한 바람직한 평가 방법은 무엇이라고 인식하고 있는가? 3. 교사들이 생각하는 창의성 교육의 장애요인과 개선 방안은 무엇인가? 본 연구는 서울특별시에 근무하는 초등학교 교사 103명을 대상으로 실시되었으며, 본 연구자가 직접 제작한 개방형 설문지를 사용하였다. 설문 응답에 대한 결과 처리는 각 문항에 대한 빈도수와 백분율을 사용하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 초등학교 교사들은 창의성을 유용함과 새로움, 문제해결력, 확산적 사고로 생각하고 있다. 2. 대부분의 교사는 수업현장에서 창의성 교육을 실시하고 있다고 인식하고 있으며, 교사 나름대로 교육의 필요성에 관한 생각을 가지고 있었다. 3. 창의성 교육을 실시하고자 하는 동기나 의욕은 강하다고 볼 수 있으나 창의성 교육의 내용과 방법면에서는 절차지식(사고기능)만을 강조하는 교수-학습 활동이 주로 언급되어지고 있는 것으로 보아 창의성 교육의 인식 정도가 최근 연구의 경향인 통합적 접근의 전체적 경향성을 포함하지 못하고 있었다. 4. 교사들은 초등학교 교육현장에서 창의성 교육을 실시하기에 가장 어려운 이유로 다인수 학급과 교사가 가르쳐야 할 교과 내용이 너무 많다는 응답을 하였으며, 창의성 교육을 활성화시키기 위한 대안으로는 교사의 재량권 확대 및 다인수 학급의 지양(교사 1인당 학생수 감소), 충분하고 검증된 교수자료와 전문 지원센터 운영 등을 들고 있다. ; This study has a purpose to grasp the recognition of the teachers who practice creativity education in the education field by analysing the results of the survey of elementary school teachers recognition of creativity education and to provide basic materials in suggesting a plan for a desirable creativity education. The specific issues raised to achieve this study goal are as follows. 1. What are elementary school teachers ideas of creativity characteristics? 2. What are elementary school teachers recognitions on creativity education? 1) What do elementary school teachers think they should teach to elevate creativity? 2) What methods do elementary school teachers mainly use to elevate creativity? 3) What do elementary school teachers think desirable method are to measure the effect of learners creativity? 3. What do elementary school teachers think barriers of creativity education and improving plans are? This study was conducted with the subject of 103 elementary school teachers working in Seoul, and used open type questionnaires I made myself Frequency and percentage for each question are used to treat the results of a survey. The following are the results of this study. 1. Most elementary school teachers recognize utility, novelty, problem solving and divergent thinking as the characteristics of creativity, and 99% of the teachers think there should be creativity education in the curriculum of elementary school, 98% of the teachers think they actually practice creativity education in or out of class. 2. Most elementary school teachers think creativity education is needed to survive the 21st century s future society. 3. The results of teachers recognition of creativity education in class of general subjects are as follows. Elementary school teachers think they practice creativity education most often in Korean, Art and math, and few of them say they practice it in practical course, English and physical education. In the result of analysing the contents of creativity-related teaching learning activities, teachers recognize the teaching contents of creativity education as procedural knowledge rather than content knowledge. The evaluating method mainly used is 3·5 step evaluation though discussion or products, or observation, and the results of evaluation is used as a basis for selecting materials or exhibiting materials for feedback. 4. The results of analyzing teaches recognition of creativity education practiced out of the regular class are as follows. Teachers answer that most of creativity education is practiced in the morning, and they use their own made method using newspaper and workbook rather than certain teaching method whose effects are proven. The main methods of evaluation used by teachers are portfolio methods, compensation evaluation and mutual evaluation. 5. As the reason for practicing creativity education in the field pointed most is that there are too many subject teachers should cover, and their alternative plans for activating creativity education are the expansion of teachers discretion, the decrease of the number of students per a teacher sufficient and inspected teaching material and the operation of special support center. Generalizing all these results, elementary school teachers consider creativity as utility, novelty, problem solving ability and expanding thinking, and most teachers think they practice creativity education realizing its need. That is, their motivation and volition of providing creativity education is very strong. However, in the aspect of the contents and the method of creativity education, the teaching-learning activities emphasizing procedural knowledge is mainly mentioned, and the recognition of creativity education does not include the overall trends of integral approach. Based on the results written above, I d like to make suggestions for the development of creativity education as follows. 1. The development of the curriculum that can make the contents of curriculum fused into each other should be activated in each subject. 2. There should be a standard for evaluation that can effectively measure the performance after providing creativity education in the teaching-learning situation. 3. The number of students per a teacher should be decreased so that teachers can stimulate children s creativity and play a role as guide or a promoter. 4. If teachers have more discretion that allows them overcome the difficulties of creativity education, the future creativity education will be directed to a desirable way. 5. In educating teachers, the overall theories, contents on how to provide creativity education should be provided rather than training aimed at raising morale, by stressing creativity. 6. This study only looks at teachers; recognition of creativity education, so there should be more studies on the present situation of creativity education.
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