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초등학교 여교장의 상징적 지도성 특성 연구

Title
초등학교 여교장의 상징적 지도성 특성 연구
Other Titles
The Study on the Characteristics of Symbolic Leadership by Female Elementary School Principals
Authors
권리라
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
대학원 초등교육학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
이성은
Abstract
Due to the feminization of elementary teachers in our country, we could expect an increasing number of female principals. For this reason, the leadership of elementary female principals stands out significantly. Female leaders, especially female principals, show challenging aspects that lead to change and innovation. Additionally, they have strength to respect and give consideration to each individual in operating the school organization. The symbolic leadership which focuses on the formation of school community culture is fulfilled through the consideration and cooperation of teachers. In this thesis, I studied the symbolic leadership of female elementary school principals as crucial roles in leading the future education and a school as a unified cultural community. This study started from the assumption that the principal showed the different leadership according to the teachers' gender. Through a questionnaire analysis by teachers, I examined how differently the symbolic leadership of principals is formed toward teachers of both genders. This study also focused on how differently this leadership worked according to the types of elementary school establishment. This study looked into the symbolic instruction elements which can be the alternative leadership of the future education, through the previous study on a female leadership background and in-depth interviews with 10 female principals to discover the symbolic leadership of female principals. The summary of this study is below. First, the characteristics of the female elementary principals' symbolic instruction are divided into 5 categories: school culture formers, vision presenters, curers, CEOs, challengers. Each category comprises specific content elements. In the case of school culture formers, this study was based on creating school environment, organizing atmosphere, granting a sense of ownership, forming schools' traditional culture, and connecting to the community. The survey related to the vision presenters included the factors such as building education belief, sharing vision, presenting role models, and promoting education development. Other elements for curers are composed of love and consideration, encouraging and respecting, communicating, and resolving. CEO elements are classified as planning elaborately, giving trust by transparently operating, managing effectively, performing a rational personnel management, and operating finance prudently. The survey elements for school culture formers, vision presenters, and curers were predicted as characteristics of the symbolic leadership. However, the factors of CEOs and challengers are considered to be observed only in our country. The last elements for challengers included the enterprising principals, constant self-development, thorough self-management, time management, and self-introspection. These results leaded us to predict that female principals have lived progressive, challenging lives through successfully overcoming difficulties and obstacles with great efforts in the male-dominated social background. In particular, female principals have been endeavoring infinitely to survive in a male-dominated competitive society through constant self-development and strict self-administration. After being promoted to principal position, female principals constantly challenge and make plans in the new field and graft a different field that they developed to education. This image could change the awareness of outsider who may see the educational world as stagnant and it also has been shown as a role model for the teachers who study diligently and direct strong effort toward the education field. Particularly, female principals regard work and family both significantly. They empathize the significance of family and do not neglect their duties at home throughout busy schedules. Furthermore, they devote themselves to managing their schools. They build close human relations by making thorough use of feedback from the community and by fostering relationships with school parents and community. When difficult issues arise, these relationships form the basis for resolving them through communication of love and consideration. Additionally, female principals are considered to be trustworthy by running school transparently, rationally managing personnel and operating finance prudently. In the future, the female principal's role will be counted crucial as a role model for transparent, successful education in the education innovation and rapid societal change. Second, when analyzing the gender gap of the elementary school principals' symbolic leadership which could be the background variables of the teachers, there was no difference in the leadership of the elementary school principals concerning school culture formers, and the high-level leadership of the female principals appeared in case of the teachers and curers. Additionally, in case of CEOs and challengers, the symbolic leadership of the principals remained at a high level when they worked with the teachers at the same genders. Throughout in-dept interviews, female principals strongly presented their visions and tried to graft it to education. They displayed their own visions of education through diverse educational activities. It is outstanding that they endeavored to fulfill their view of education through active participation in various educational programs such as after-school activities and day care classes. As a role of curer, female principals embraced teachers, students, school parents with love and consideration. They paid attention to the smallest detail and attempted to communicate clearly with members of the education community with the greatest care. Especially since they maintained a close relationship with school parents, when facing difficult issues, they smoothly resolved them utilizing advantages of usual human relations. In addition, female teachers sensed higher symbolic leadership in the figure of CEO and challenger of female principals and this implies that female teachers highly regard rational planning and personnel management, transparent, effective, and prudent school operation by female principals. Furthermore, they acknowledge that female principals make constant efforts and continue to thoroughly manage themselves for self-development. If female teachers who form a vast number in the educational field, are highly aware of the symbolic leadership of female principals, we will expect an increasing number of female principals. This change will contribute more to the positive aspect of our educational field. Third, the analysis of the gender gap of the elementary school principals' symbolic leadership based on the types of the school establishment indicated that the national public school principals have shown the highly-motivated leadership when they are relevant with the educational culture formers. In case of vision presenters, curers and challengers, the female and national public school principals appeared to have more leadership. However, no difference was found related to CEOs. With reference to the types of school establishment, it was predicted as a result that the symbolic leadership as school culture formers would be higher in case of the private school principals. However, the symbolic leadership of the national public school principals was revealed much higher. When considering that most of the private elementary schools were founded in 1960s or 1970s and have succeeded the educational philosophy of their schools for decades, the private school teachers might be deeply rooted in their traditional school cultures. The result of in-depth interviews based on the above situation tells us that the private school teachers might not think afresh that their principals have much symbolic leadership as school culture formers. On the other hand, the national public teachers who transfer to other schools every few years are likely to think that their newly appointed principals have much symbolic leadership. This is because their principals try to form the new school cultures as soon as they start for the new posts. The result that the national public and female principals showed more symbolic leadership in the field of vision presenters and challengers, might be caused by the fact that the private schools and the national public schools have the different educational environments. The national public and female principals might be evaluated much higher related to their leadership as vision presenters and challengers, as the private schools try to succeed the educational philosophy based on their own founding spirit. According to the result of the above research, the female principals showed higher symbolic leadership than the male principals, regarding vision presenters, curers and challengers. The principals' leadership appeared differently according to the teachers' genders and the types of the school establishment. The antecedent study showed that their leadership appeared greater in respect of culture formers, curers, and vision presenters. It also became visible that their leadership influenced CEOs and challengers. Especially, the fact that the challengers' range got highly affected is considered as a specific situation which could be noticeable just in Korea. Despite the high rate of the female teachers in our country, this result showed how intensively the female teachers have lived progressive and challenging lives to achieve the position titled 'The Principal'. This hardship could be developed to a crucial factor leading them to an outstanding symbolic leadership of the female principals in Korea. When considering the high rate of the female teachers and the result that the principals' leadership have much greater effects on the same genders as they are, we can reach the conclusion that the rate of the female principals should be increased. The female principals' roles and leadership achieved through lots of efforts and difficulties could be cornerstones which would lead us to the successful innovation of education. The further research is needed based on this study. First, this study focused on the symbolic leadership of the female elementary school principals. In order to elicit the concrete examples of their symbolic leadership factors, especially, in-depth interviews were included in this research. Ten female principals participated in the survey. However, the further research will be carried out with 20 female principals, particularly including the private elementary school principals. This study was based on in-depth interviews with the national public school principals, so it is more advisable to approach the further research basically related to much more female private school principals. Second, this research approached the gender gap of the elementary school principals' symbolic leadership. The further study will be more focused on the differences which the elementary school teachers might perceive regarding the principals' symbolic leadership. It would be good to include the in-depth interviews of the elementary school teachers for the concrete examples. It would be also recommended to survey the gender gap of their symbolic leadership. It might be desirable to have an in-depth research in order to find the differences which the teachers and their principals perceive concerning the principals' symbolic leadership. Additionally, the result that male teachers felt more leadership as challengers and CEOs from their male principals reflects that they might feel the gender gap between male and female principals. It means that the principals' figures as challengers and CEOs were illuminated differently according to genders. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the examples through in-depth interviews with teachers. Third, this research was proceeded to check if there is a gender gap of the elementary school principals' symbolic leadership differentiated by the types of schools. As we know, there is a big difference in the number of the private and national public schools in our country. When considering that they are approximately in the ratio of 10 : 1. it would be desirable to survey them with the same ratio. If we conduct a further research like the above, we will be able to reach more competent research result. Fourth, if the further study is focused on how deeply female principals with good symbolic leadership influence on students' learning and school life as well as school management, we will be able to look into the desirable effects which they might bring to our education.;우리나라의 급격한 교직 여성화 현상은 미래 교육현장에서의 초등 여교장의 증가를 예측해 볼 수 있다. 이러한 사회적 변화와 학교혁신의 흐름 속에서 초등 여교장이 중추적인 역할을 맡게 되면서 자발적인 헌신과 참여를 통해 여성의 장점인 섬세함과 배려를 바탕으로 하여 학교를 하나의 문화공동체로 이끌어 나갈 수 있는 상징적 지도 성을 갖춘 초등 여교장을 필요로 한다. 이를 위해 본 연구에서는 선행연구와 주요 이론에 대한 문헌 고찰, 심층면접을 통해 초등학교 여교장의 상징적 지도성의 특성에 대해 연구하고, 설문지의 분석을 토대로, 초등학교 교사의 성별과 학교설립유형에 따라 초등학교장의 성별에 대한 상징적 지도성의 차이가 있는가를 알아보고자 하였다. 이러한 연구 목적에 따른 구체적인 연구 문제는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 초등학교 여교장의 상징적 지도 성 특성은 무엇인가? 둘째, 초등학교 교장의 성별 상징적 지도성에 대한 초등학교 교사의 성별에 따른 인식의 차이가 있는가? 2-1. 교사 성별에 따라 인식의 차이가 있는가? 2-2. 교장 성별에 따라 인식의 차이가 있는가? 2-3. 교사와 교장의 성별에 있어서 인식의 차이가 있는가? 셋째, 초등학교 교장의 성별 상징적 지도성에 대한 초등학교 학교설립유형에 따른 인식의 차이가 있는가? 3-1. 학교설립유형에 따라 인식의 차이가 있는가? 3-2. 교장 성별에 따라 인식의 차이가 있는가? 3-3. 학교설립유형과 교장에 있어서 인식의 차이가 있는가? 연구방법으로 연구 문제 1에서는 초등학교장의 상징적 지도성의 특성은 무엇인가를 알기 위해서 주요이론에 대한 고찰, 선행연구에 기초하여 10명의 초등 여교장과의 심층면담을 통해 상징적 지도성의 요인을 추출하고, 구체적인 특성 사례를 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 문제 2에서는 초등학교 교장의 성별 상징적 지도성에 대한 초등학교 교사의 성별에 따른 인식의 차이가 있는 가를 알아보고자 하였다. 심층면담에서 추출한 요인을 토대로 한 설문지를 통해 예비조사와 본 조사를 실시하고 실제로 남녀 교장간의 유의미한 차이가 있는지 이원분산분석을 하였다. 연구문제 3에서는 초등학교 교장의 성별 상징적 지도성에 대한 초등학교 학교설립유형에 따른 인식의 차이가 있는가를 알아보고자 하였다. 심층면담에서 추출한 요인을 토대로 한 설문지를 통해 예비조사와 본 조사를 실시하고 실제로 남녀 교장간의 유의미한 차이가 있는지 이원분산분석을 하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 연구 문제 1에서는 초등 여교장의 상징적 지도 성 특성연구에서는 여교장의 상징적 지도성의 요인으로 5가지 요인으로 나타났다. 5가지 요인으로는 학교문화형성자, 비전제시자, 치유자, 최고 경영자(CEO), 도전자의 요인으로 추출되었다. 학교문화형성자로서 특색 있는 학교 환경을 조성, 분위기 조성, 학교구성 원에게 주인의식 부여, 학교의 전통문화 형성, 지역 공동체와의 연계를 하였다. 비전제시 자로 서는 교육신념을 보이고, 비전 공유, 역할모델 제시, 교육발전 도모하였다. 치유 자로는 사랑과 배려를 실천, 존중하고 격려하기, 의사소통하기, 사건을 수습하며 분위기를 회복하는 역할을 하였다. 최고경영자(CEO)로서는 꼼꼼하게 계획하기, 투명한 운영으로 신뢰 주기, 효율적으로 운영하기, 합리적인 인사관리, 알뜰한 살림꾼이었다. 도전자로서는 끊임없는 자기계발을 통하여 지속적으로 도전하는 모습, 철저한 자기관리 및 시간관리, 반성적 사고를 지녔다. 연구문제 2에서 초등학교 교장의 성별 상징적 지도성에 대한 초등학교 교사의 성별에 따른 인식의 차이를 살펴보면, 학교문화형성자에서는 초등학교장의 상징적 지도성의 차이가 없었으며, 비전제시 자와 치유 자에서는 여교장의 상징적 지도 성이 높게 나왔다. 그리고 최고경영자와 도전자에서는 남교사가 남교장에 대하여, 여교사가 여교장에 대하여 상징적 지도 성이 높게 나왔다. 교장의 성별은 비전제시자 및 치유 자에는 영향을 주지만, 교사의 성별은 영향을 준다고 할 수 없었다. 또한 최고 경영자와 도전자에서는 교장성별과 교사성별의 상호작용이 지도성에 영향을 주는 요인이라는 것이 나타났으며 이는 인식의 차이가 있음을 나타냈다. 연구문제 3에서 초등학교 교장의 성별 상징적 지도성에 대한 초등학교 학교설립유형에 따른 인식의 차이가 있는 가를 살펴보면, 학교문화형성자에는 국공립이 초등학교장의 상징적 지도 성이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 비전제시 자와 치유자, 도전자에서는 여교장과 국공립이 상징적 지도 성이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 최고경영자에서는 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 비전제시자, 치유자 도전자에서는 교장의 성별이 지도성에 영향을 미치며 학교설립유형에도 영향을 미치지만, 학교유형과 교장 성별 간에는 영향을 미치지 않았으며, 인식의 차이가 없음을 나타냈다. 위의 연구결과를 살펴 볼 때, 초등 여교장의 상징적 지도 성 특성 연구에서는 여성교장이 남교장보다 비전제시자, 치유자, 도전자의 영역에서 높은 상징적 지도 성을 발휘하는 것으로 나타났다. 여교장의 상징적 지도성은 앞으로 교육혁신과 급변하는 사회변화에서 성공적인 교육변화를 이끌 수 있는 주도적인 역할을 할 것으로 기대한다. 한편, 본 연구의 결과를 토대로 제언과 함께 향후 진행되어야 할 후속 연구를 제시하면 다음과 같다. 추후 이루어지는 연구에서는 심층면담의 연구대상 수를 늘리고, 사립 여교장의 심층면담도 포함하면 좋을 것이다. 특히 교사들의 심층면담을 통해 교사와 교장이 인식한 상징적 지도성의 차이점이 있는가를 알아보는 것도 흥미로운 연구가 될 것이다. 국공립과 사립초교의 수를 고려하여 연구를 하면 보다 더 심층 있는 연구결과가 나올 수 있을 것이라고 여겨진다. 특히 상징적 지도 성을 갖고 있는 여교장의 학교를 선택하여 그 상징적 지도 성이 학교운영 면에서뿐만 아니라, 학교어린이의 학습 면, 생활 면에 어떠한 영향을 미치고 있는 가를 알아보면, 이러한 상징적 지도 성을 갖고 있는 교장들의 교육적인 효과에 대해 알아보고, 그 효과가 있다면 어떠한 점들로 나타나고 있는 가를 알아보면 더 의의가 있을 것이다. 또한 교사의 성별, 교장의 성별, 학교설립유형의 세 가지 변인을 통한 상호작용효과를 알아보는 것도 새로운 결과를 얻을 수 있을 것이라고 여겨진다..
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