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교사의 교과 내용 지식 구조화에 관한 수업 분석 연구

교사의 교과 내용 지식 구조화에 관한 수업 분석 연구
Other Titles
Analysis of teacher's subject matter knowledge structure shown in instructional practices
Issue Date
대학원 초등교육학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Today, education plays an important role in the growth of the students to become a personage for the national benefit and is responsible for the development of a knowledge based society for the international era which is rapidly changing in the 21st century. However, schools across the country are in a state of a critical educational crisis. Thus, in order to overcome the critical educational crisis, a reformation of educational practices must exist. The research shows that the key words to overcoming the critical educational crisis are "subject matter knowledge" and the "teacher." Our country is in the seventh national curriculum and is in the process of curriculum construction and development which focuses on the learner. This idea supports that in the classroom, instead of emphasizing the importance of the structure of teaching and the content materials, figuring out the interests of the learner and the teacher's style of lesson deliverance is emphasized. In other words, the focus is on the learner, and there's a correlation between the subject matter which is being taught and the type of the learner in the classroom. In order to make sure that the learner is learning, and in order to find the best solution to have the learner learn at their best ability, the teacher plays the most important role in trying to help the learner expand their knowledge on the content materials. The research focused primary on the importance of "subject matter knowledge" and the "teacher" to improve the quality of the education. The research started by looking at the subject matter knowledge in two different settings: lesson planning and the actual deliverance of the lesson. In addition, the research portrayed how teachers affect the learners based on their knowledge on the subject matter and this research tried to analyze the structure of a teacher's subject matter knowledge and how can this affects the student's learning of the subject. In order to carry out the research, the researchers met with participating teachers and observed their classrooms and analyzed the works of the students in depth. The results of the research are as follows. Analysis of the teacher's subject matter knowledge structure and the student's learning of the subject showed that when teachers taught each subject matter in the place and meaning of the big picture of Korean language arts classes and how each subject matter worked considering connections of knowledge, teachers can increase potential that learners could understand meaning and function of the teacher's subject matter and apply and reapply in the new context which language is used. In addition this analysis demonstrated that when teachers focused separate knowledge rather than connections of the knowledge in the classes, learners just understood learning contents as the class learning activity and didn't catch successfully and meaningfully subject matter which involved in class activity. On the basis of the these analyses, this research demonstrated what kind of the result is made by the way of each teacher's subject matter knowledge structure of Korean language arts and the learner's different understanding level about the learning contents. As the result, this analysis showed that teacher K who taught student considering the subject matter knowledge of Korean language arts in connections of knowledge applied effectively in the context of language than teacher P who didn't consider the subject matter knowledge of Korean language but focused on class activity as the learning content the subject matter knowledge of Korean language arts. This analysis also showed that the result can be different according to genre but generally the subject matter knowledge of Korean language arts has effect to develop writing pertinence than novelty. The conclusions of the research on these analyses are as follows. First, to analyze quality of subject matter knowledge in a class, not only analysis on the superficial subject matter knowledge but also analysis on the deeper level of knowledge should be researched at the same time. Usually when teachers plan same subject matter knowledge and teach the same subject, teachers' class contents seem to be no difference at the superficial level. However, when deeper analysis about the subject matter knowledge which a teacher taught is carried out in the category of relation of knowledge, knowledge level, and connection between knowledges, the subject matter knowledge taught in class could be different. In this reason, this deeper analysis should be carried out for the exact evaluation of the subject matter knowledge taught by a teacher in the class. Second, a teacher can effectively teach subject when he or she has affluent knowledge base about subject which will be taught in class. Usually a teacher's teaching plan in class can be summarized as one or two succinct sentences. However when this knowledge is delivered in the class, this knowledge appears more complicate and connected with other knowledges. In addition this connection can be various according to teacher's systematic and detail knowledges related to class plan. Therefore a teacher should increase his or her range of subject matter knowledge, understanding related knowledge in detail and depth so that he or she can teach his subject in systematic and practical way. Third, to increase the potential which learner could understand availability of the subject matter knowledge and to apply this knowledge to the new problematic situation, a teacher should have perspective on subject matter knowledge structure. If a teacher has no this perspective, a learner couldn't understand meaning of the subject matter knowledge melt in the class activity and knowledge could be restricted in class activity so that learner couldn't understand what he learn and decrease potential of applying knowledge to problematic situation. Therefore a teacher should know that a learner's understanding the subject matter knowledge can be different according to teacher's perspective on subject matter knowledge structure and should develop his or her perspective on this integral structure. Forth, the transfer of knowledge can be more exactly understood when the transfer which knowledge level guarantees and the transfer which connection between knowledge guarantees are considered at the same time. If the transfer which knowledge level guarantees and the transfer which connection of knowledges guarantees are separated as each one, understanding the transfer knowledge should be restricted. Therefore both categories need to be considered for exact checking and evaluation about the transfer of subject matter knowledge. Fifth, theoretic researches of subject matter knowledge by various scholars and education experts have restriction. Rather practical researches through observation of school classes are needed now. To understand the true meaning of the teacher's subject matter knowledge, the way which a teacher delivers knowledge to students should be analyzed on the basis of observation on the class which knowledge is taught to student. In this reason, researches on the subject matter knowledge are needed to be related to class research. For the collecting data and analysis, integral context which the knowledges are delivered should be studied through quality research method. The results found in this research practically revealed how teacher's subject matter knowledge structure in the class can affect the student's learning of a subject. Furthermore, they also showed that the most crucial things for improvement of education qualities were to ensure the subject matter of knowledge and the teacher's specialty. These findings encourage and offer the educational system to develop and pursue the different meanings of teaching the levels of subjects. In addition these results provide various meanings to the people who have the responsibility for developing curriculum and to support teachers. First, in order to develop curriculum, the school system and the developer must research and focus on the subject matter knowledge before hand. This also indicates how interrelation of knowledge is important when teachers find their curriculum and organize lessons. Therefore, in order to develop curriculum, the curriculum developer must suggest structures of disciplines and guide the teachers. Second, this research also challenges that education scholars who investigate education matters and support education fields should understand the education phenomena in a total context. It is also important that through this process, substantial and helpful educational materials should be published. This research provides effective tools, coding category for analyzing teacher's subject matter knowledge structure. This category can be used to analyze teacher's subject matter knowledge structure in the class and also can be applied to various field study as well as Korean language arts lessons in class as a good tool to analyze the subject matter knowledge structure. This research also insists that education officials who are responsible for education policy and execution should develop and support effective programs for teacher's professional development and training. In conclusion, this research tried to analyze the structure of teacher's subject matter knowledge in various ways. These play a vital role in the teacher's teaching practices, and the importance of the subject matter knowledge and the roles of the teacher. In addition this research tried to open the hidden aspects of a classroom, using quality research tool and providing results in the total context so that the readers can have new perspective sand possibility to find new educational tasks.;본 연구의 목적은 교사의 교과 내용 지식의 구조화 방식이 학습자의 교과 학습과 어떤 관계가 있는지를 밝히는 데 있다. 본 연구는 이를 위해 실제 교실에서 이루어지는 교사의 수업을 관찰하고 분석하도록 설계되었다. 자료의 분석은 주로 질적인 방법을 통해 이루어졌는데, 수량화될 수 있는 결과에 대해서는 양적 분석을 병행하여 분석 결과의 신뢰도를 높였다. 교사의 교과 내용 지식의 구조화 방식은 수집된 자료로부터 도출된 범주 체계, 즉 ‘계획된 지식과의 관계’, ‘지식의 수준’, ‘지식 간의 연계’ 범주에 따라 분석되었고, 교사의 교과 내용 지식의 구조화와 학습자의 교과 학습의 관계는 학습자의 반성적 저널과 쓰기 결과물 분석을 통해 탐구되었다. 이러한 과정을 통해 도출된 연구 결과를 살펴보면, 교사가 지식 간의 연계를 고려하여 각각의 내용 지식이 전체 국어과 내용 지식의 구조 속에서 갖는 위치와 의미를 가르치고, 각각의 내용 지식이 서로 어떻게 연계되어 작동하는가를 가르칠 경우, 학습자는 자신의 교과 학습에서 각각의 지식이 갖는 의미와 역할을 인식하여 그 지식을 새로운 담화 상황에 적용할 수 있는 가능성을 높이는 것으로 분석되었다. 그리고 교사가 국어과 내용 지식들 간의 관련성 보다는 각 차시에서 각각의 지식 하나하나에 중점을 두고 가르칠 경우, 학습자는 자신이 배운 내용을 수업 시간에 이루어진 학습 활동으로 인식하고, 학습 활동 속에 녹아 있는 교과의 내용 지식을 의미있게 분리해 내지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 이러한 분석 결과를 바탕으로, 각 교사의 국어과 내용 지식의 구조화 방식과 각 학급 학습자들의 학습 내용에 대한 인식 차이가 실제 학습자들의 쓰기 결과물에서 어떠한 결과로 나타나는지를 분석하였다. 그 결과, 국어과 내용 지식들이 서로 어떻게 연계되어 작용하는가를 고려하여 가르친 K교사 학급 학습자들이, 학습 활동 속에 녹아 있는 국어과 내용 지식을 분리해 내지 않고 학습 활동 자체를 학습 내용으로 인식한 P교사 학급 학습자들보다 국어과 내용 지식을 새로운 국어적 담화 상황에 더 잘 적용하는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 장르별로 차이가 있긴 하나 국어과 내용 지식은 글쓰기 활동에서 글의 참신성보다는 글의 적절성을 높이는 데 기여하는 바가 더 큰 것으로 분석되었다. 본 연구는 교사가 수업에서 교수하는 교과 내용 지식을 ‘지식의 구조’라는 관점에서 분석하고, 그것이 학습자의 교과 학습에 미칠 수 있는 영향이 무엇인지를 밝혀 봄으로써, 실제 학교 교육에서 교과의 내용 지식이 갖는 의미와 교사 역할의 중요성을 드러내었다고 할 수 있다. 결국, 본 연구에서 도출된 이러한 결론들은 교사가 학교 교육과정의 최종 의사결정자이며, 교육과정 실행자로서 학습자의 교과 학습에 영향을 주는 중요한 변인이 되고 있음을 보여주는 것이라 할 수 있다. 그리고 이것은 교사의 수업에 나타난 교과 내용 지식이 학습자의 교과 학습에 어떤 영향을 미칠 수 있는가를 실제적으로 보여주며, 더 나아가 학교 교과 교육의 질적인 담보를 위해 주목해야 할 중요한 변인이 ‘교과의 내용 지식’과 ‘교사의 교과 전문성’에 있다는 것을 드러내 주는 것이라 할 수 있다.
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