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다문화가 반영된 미술감상활동이 유아의 인종에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향

다문화가 반영된 미술감상활동이 유아의 인종에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향
Other Titles
A Study on the Effects of the Multi-cultural Art Appreciation and Children's Attitudes Towards Different Races
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교육대학원 유아교육전공
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
본 연구의 목적은 다문화가 반영된 미술작품 감상활동을 통한 다문화교육이 유아의 인종에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향을 파악하는 것이다. 구체적인 연구문제는 다음과 같다. 1. 다문화가 반영된 미술감상활동이 유아의 인종에 대한 선호도에 미치는 영향은 어떠한가? 2. 다문화가 반영된 미술감상활동이 유아의 인종에 대한 편견에 미치는 영향은 어떠한가? 본 연구의 대상은 경기도 H시에 위치하고 있는 유치원에 재원 중인 남아 16명, 여아 12명 총 28명이다. 본 연구에서는 다문화가 반영된 미술감상활동이 유아의 인종에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 인종에 대한 선호도 및 편견으로 분류하여 검사하였다. 유아의 인종에 대한 선호도를 알아보기 위해서 인종선호도에 대한 여러 연구(엄미숙, 1999; Clark & Clark, 1947; Hirschfeld, 1995; Horowitz, 1987; Morland, 1958; Radke & Trager, 1950; Ramsey, 1987)들을 기초로 박지희(2002)가 사용한 도구를 사용하였다. 유아의 인종에 대한 편견을 알아보기 위해서는 신현경(2007)의 도구를 기초로 본 연구에 적절하게 수정하여 사용하였다. 유아의 인종에 대한 선호도 및 편견에 대한 사전검사 실시 후, 문화가 반영된 미술작품 감상활동을 통한 다문화 교육을 6주 12회 실시하였다. 그 후 사후검사를 하여 사전검사 및 사후검사를 비교함으로써 다문화가 반영된 미술감상활동이 유아의 인종에 대한 선호도 및 편견에 미치는 영향은 어떠한지 분석하였다. 사전 및 사후 검사는 교사가 유아와의 1:1의 면접을 통해 질문함으로써 이루어졌으며, 이를 통해 수집된 자료는 SPSS 12.0 프로그램을 사용하여 분석하였고 연구문제에 따라 빈도분석, T-test를 실시하였다. 본 연구의 분석결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 유아의 인종에 대한 선호도는 동일인종 즉, 동북아시아계에 대해서는 변화가 없었으며 전체적인 선호도에서도 큰 변화를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 각 사회적 상황별 인종선택에서 사전검사에 비해 사후검사결과 각 문항마다 인종에 대한 선택이 보다 고르게 나타났으며, 동북아시아계에 이어 선호를 보이던 유럽계에 대한 선호가 감소한 대신, 동남아시아계 및 아프리카계에 대한 선호도가 증가하였다. 둘째, 유아들의 인종에 대한 편견은 감소하였다. 인종편견의 영역 다섯 가지 가운데 능력에 대한 편견을 제외한 모든 영역에서 편견이 감소됨을 보였고, 세부적으로는 외모에 대한 편견, 놀이상대에 대한 편견, 계층에 대한 편견, 도움을 주는 친구에 대한 편견이 감소하였다.;The purpose of the study was to examine the effects on children's racial attitude after appreciating multi-cultural art. A specific focus was placed on the racial preference and bias of 5 year old children who were in kindergarten class 'A' at 'B' elementary school. The following research questions were developed. 1. What is the effect on racial preference of children after appreciating multi-cultural art? 2. What is the effect on racial bias of children after appreciating multi-cultural art? This study conducted fieldwork to examine the possibility that multi-cultural art appreciation can reduce preference and bias of children who live in Korea (Which is rapidly evolving into a multi-cultural society). The target of this study was 28 children in kindergarten class 'A' at 'B' elementary school. Research was conducted for 6 weeks with a total of 12 sessions. The measurement tool used to study children's preferences about race was the Children's Preference about Race Tool(Park Ji Hee, 2002). This tool was developed based on extensive research(Um Mi Suk, 1999; Clark&Clark, 1947; Hirschfeld, 1995; Horowitz, 1936; Morland, 1958; Radke & Trager, 1950; Ramsey, 1987). This tool was modified to suit this study's purposes. Both tools consist of 4 questions which create social situations and a need to select an individual. Races were added so children had to select one of five cards reflecting different races. Children had to select for the following social situations to play with, cooperate with, help and share with. The individuals reflected on the cards were European, Latin American, South-East Asian, east North-East Asian and African. The measurement tool for children's bias about race(Shin Hyun Kyung, 2007) was also used and modified to suit this study's purposes. To examine the effects of appreciating multi-cultural art, students took a pretest of preference and bias about race and also took a post-test after the 6week program. The pretest and post-test were done by interviewing each child one bye one and the results from those tests were analyzed with T-test and Frequencies of SPSS 12.0. The findings of this study were as follows; First the children's preference about race didn't drastically change especially when examining North-East Asians. However there was a tendency for children's choices about race to be more balanced for each social situation in the post-test compared to the result of the pretest. A preference of North-East Asians and Europeans decreased instead of increasing preference of South-East Asians and Africans. This result is considered as the results of multi-cultural art appreciation. Through the process of appreciating multi-cultural art, they were able to realize many positive aspects of different cultures and understand and respect differences. Also they were able to consider everyone as human even though they looked different. Increasing preference of South-east Asians means more for korean society which has high population of South-east Asians as residents. Second, children's biases about race decreased. Among the 5 sections reflecting bias about race, almost of all sections showed a decrease except Ability. This result is also considered a reflection of multi-cultural art appreciation. Through this process, they were able to notice that everybody is different, understand why everybody is different, and how individuals are different but are still similar. They could appreciate the good factors of difference which produced a positive outlook on living together with different races. Students also realized their own false biases about different race. In conclusion, the appreciation of multi-cultural art affected children's preferences and biases about different races. However it does not mean that appreciating of multi-cultural art is enough, During the program, conversations about different cultures must also occur for change to occur. Children need to be offered the opportunities to think about different cultures through our their curriculum and this will lead to having more understanding and for others.
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