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우리나라 大學入試制度의 變遷에 關한 硏究

Title
우리나라 大學入試制度의 變遷에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the change of the system of entrance examination for university in korea
Authors
鄭美卿.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
대학원 교육학과
Keywords
대학입시제도교육제도제도변천
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
우리나라 大學入試制度는 一貫性없이 試行錯誤가 繼續되어 왔으며 敎育과 社會의 癌的 요소로 韓國 敎育이 직면해 온 문제 중 가장 심각한 것이었다. 大學入試制度가 아직도 定着되지 못한 채 논란이 계속되고 變化되어 온 것은 제도 자체의 矛盾뿐 아니라 우리의 社會意識과 社會構造, 大學의 收容力과 社會의 收容力에도 根本的인 問題가 있다. 우리는 여러 형태의 제도를 경험해 왔으므로 이제 最善의 입시제도를 모색할 단계에 도달했다. 最善의 方法을 찾기 위해 解放이후 지금까지 대학입시의 變遷過程을 살펴 봄으로서 問題點과 解決點을 얻을 수 있으리라 보며 여기에 本硏究의 目的이 있다. 대학입시제도의 變遷過程을 制度와 形態에 따라 다음 여섯가지로 나누어 볼 수 있다. 첫째, 大學別 單獨考試制(1945∼1953 학년도) 둘째, 大學入學國家聯合考試制(1954 학년도) 셋째, 大學別 單獨考試制 : 有試·無試驗銓衡(1955∼1961 학년도) 넷째, 大學入學資格國家考試制(1962∼1963 학년도) 다섯째, 大學別 單獨考試制(1964∼1968 학년도) 여섯째, 大學入學豫備考査制(1969∼1981 학년도) 대학입시의 制度 및 銓衡方法에 관해 변천과정을 통해 분석한 결과 다음 사항들이 추출되었다. ① 대학입시제도는 대학별 單獨考試制와 國家考試制가 반복·실시되어 왔으며, 不正入學 防止·學生들의 質的 向上·大學의 質的 向上 및 平準化·高等學校 敎育의 正常化·敎育機會均等·大學의 自律性 등의 측면에 개혁의 根據를 두었다. ② 選拔形態에 있어서 국가고시의 學科別·系列別·地域別 선발, 대학별 본고사의 系列別 선발은 입시관리의 업무를 복잡하게 했으며 質的 向上·適性敎育 등 당초의 기대와는 다른 결과를 초래했다. ③ 수험생의 부담 격감·고등학교 敎育의 正常化라는 명목으로 試驗科目의 縮小·擴大를 반복하였으며, 국어·영어·수학 爲主로 과목에 대한 편중이 있었고 採點의 容易性에 역점을 두어 적절한 問項形式을 취하지 않았다. ④ 試驗期間는 고등학교 교육과정의 비정상적 운영을 초래했으며 학생들의 생활지도에 지장이 있어 不適切했다. ⑤ 入試管理가 제대로 이루어지지 않아 혼란을 초래하기도 했으며 대학교수의 全面 出題로 교과서外 難問題가 출제되었고 입시관리상 時間의 制約과 人員의 不足 상태였다. 本 硏究에서 설정한 평가기준인 敎育目的面의 高等學校 敎育의 正常化·大學이 專門性, 敎育行政面의 敎育機會의 均等·大學의 自律性 측면에서 大學入試 制度를 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. ① 편중된 시험과목과 배점, 객관식 문항형태, 부적절한 시험시기, 대학교수들의 전면 출제는 高等學校 敎育의 正常的인 운영에 지장을 초래하였다. ② 편중된 시험과목과 배점, 객관식 문항형태로 大學의 專門性을 높일 수 있는 학력·적성 평가가 되지 못하였다. ③ 국가고시의 실시로 부정입학을 방지하여 敎育機會 均等을 도모한 반면 성별 지역별 不均等과 내신성적 반영의 평가상 문제·성적 적용의 신축성 부족으로 인한 不均等도 나타난다. ④ 일부대학에서 진정한 의미의 大學의 自律이 이루어지지 않아 고등학교 교육의 비정상화를 초래하거나 적격자 선발이 이루어지지 않으며 부정입학 등의 문제를 야기 시켰고 우리의 의식과 사고에 자율의 眞意가 不在하고 있음을 볼 수 있다. 이상의 분석 결과에 의해 다음과 같은 基本 原則을 제시한다. ① 全人敎育의 교육이념과 高等學校 敎育의 正常化를 도모할 수 있어야 된다. ② 綜合能力의 평가와 適性 평가로 大學의 專門性을 높여야 된다. ③ 能力爲主와 平生敎育의 입장에서 나이·성별·사회적 지위·경제적 여건·지역 등에 관계없이 敎育機會가 均等히 부여되어야 한다. ④ 국가와의 相關性을 가지고 대학별 獨自性을 살릴 수 있는 大學의 自律性이 보장되어야 한다. 이러한 原則에 따라 우리나라 大學入試制度의 改善 方向을 다음과 같이 설정했다. 첫째, 국가관리하의 常設機構를 설치하고 問題銀行式 입시방법으로 각 大學別 시험을 實施한다. 둘째, 選拔形態는 大學別로 學科別 選拔을 한다. 셋째, 고등학교 敎育課程 全科目 出題, 全科目 同一配點 그리고 과목의 특성에 따른 主·客觀式 混用을 한다. 넷째, 시험 시기는 前期가 12月 중순, 後期가 1月 중·하순으로 한다. 다섯째, 입시관리는 常設機構에서 하며 年中 모든 업무를 全擔한다. 단, 시험문제나 평가 資料는 各 大學에서 大學別 평가 의도 및 취지에 따라 선택하여 제공받는다. ;In Korea, the coherent system of entrance examination for university has been one of the most serious problems confronted with Korean education as cancerous factor in education and society. Continuous denunciation and the change of this system without settlement are due to social consciousness, social structure, seating capacity of university and society as well as the contradiction of system itself. Having experienced various types of system of entrance examination, we can take the step to establish the fittest system of entrance examination. It seems that the observation on the change of these systems offers the point at issue and solution to find the best method. This is the purpose of this study. According to the system and form of entrance examination for university, its change process is able to be divided into six as follows. 1. The system of university control examination (1945∼1953) 2. The system of national federal examination (1954) 3. The system of university control examination; Selection of examination or free examination (1955∼1961). 4. The system of national qualification examination (1962∼1963). 5. The system of university control examination (1964∼1968). 6. The system of preliminary examination for university (1969∼1981). The following items were extracted from the analyzed results about the change of system of entrance examination for university and its selection. 1. The system of entrance examination has been executed repeatedly based on university control examination and national examination. The primary factors of the change are prevention of injustice entrance, quality elevation of student, quality elevation and leveling of university, normalization of high school education, equal education opportunities, autonomy of university. 2. In the method of selection, the selection by department, section and region in national examination and the selection by section in university control examination make the management of entrance examination for university complex. And unexpected results were brought. 3. Reduction and enlargement of subjects for examine have been repeated in excuse of sharp burdens decrease of examine and normalization of high school education. It stressed the subjects; Korean reading, Mathematics, English. And without proper item type of examination questions, the easiness of grading was emphasized. 4. Up to now, the season of examination is not suitable because the management of high school education has been operated abnormally. 5. Confusions were incurred because of weakness of examination management. As persons who set questions were professors of university, they set difficult questions of which solution could not be found in high school textbooks. And time was restricted and management personnels were insufficient. According to the established criterions of this study: normalization of high school education, specialization of university in educational purpose; equal education opportunities, autonomy of university in educational administration, the system of entrance examination was analyzed as follows. 1. High school education was operated abnormally because of unbalanced subjects of examination, maldistribution of marks, objective style in item type, unsuitable season of examination and the style of making questions only by professors of university. 2. Evaluation of scholastic abilities and aptitude appraisal which can elevate the specialization of university was impossible because of unbalanced subjects of examination, maldistribution of marks and objective style in item type. 3. While equal education opportunity was accomplished through prevention of injustice entrance of the principle of national examination, not only inequality of sex, region, but also inequality from the problems of evaluation of reflected high school reports and the lacks of elasticities of applied high school report occurred. 4. Because the real autonomy of university was not established, abnormal high school educations, impossibility of qualified person selection, and injustice entrance examination were brought about. Then there was not true meaning of autonomy in our consciousness and thoughts. By the above analyzed results, the basic principles are established. 1. The education ideology of whole man education and normalization of high school education should be accomplished. 2. The specialization of university has to be elevated through the evaluation of synthetic abilities and aptitude appraisal. 3. With a view of ability-oriented and lifelong education, equal education opportunity has to be given regardless of age, sex, social status, economic condition, and region. 4. With the relationship to nation, autonomy of university which can contribute to originality of university must be guaranteed. According to above principles, I suggest the better steps toward improvement of the system of entrance examination for university as follows. 1. The permanent establishment organization under national control must be installed and each universities enforces examination of its own control by question-bank system. 2. In method of selection, each universities selects applicants in each departments. 3. The subjects of examination have to consist of whole subjects on a high school curriculum and equal distribution of marks and subjective, objective style in item type of examination should be adopted to the questions of examination. 4. In the season of examination, the first entrance examination for university should be the middle of ten days of December and the second should be the middle or last ten days of January next year. 5. The permanent establishment organization manages the entrance examination for university and always transacts all affairs of examination. Therefore each universities can take examination questions and inspection materials offered from this organization according to the appraisal intension and the view of universities.
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