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프랑스 敎育制度에 關한 考察

프랑스 敎育制度에 關한 考察
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(A) Study of the French System of Education
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대학원 교육학과
프랑스교육제도System of Education교육학
이화여자대학교 대학원
本 硏究는 프랑스 敎育制度의 性格을 形成하고 있는 세력(forces)을 역사적인 관점에서 고찰하였다. 이것은, 外國의 敎育制度에서 모방할 가치가 있는 것을 글어 내어 自國의 理想的인 敎育制度를 構想하는 데 도움을 줄 수 있다는 比較敎育學的인 관점에서 시도한 것이다. 硏究方法은 文獻을 통한 記述的 方法 (descriptivo mothod)을 사용하였다. 硏究內容은, 프랑스 敎育制度의 變遷 過程으로서, 複線型 學制의 歷史的 背景 및 제3, 제5 共和國의 敎育制度를 다루었다. 現行敎育制度를 成立시키는 계기가 되었던 사건으로 1968年 5月革命을 다루었고, 敎育理念 및 政策的 方向으로서 敎育理念的 背景, 敎育行政을 고찰해 보았다. 그리고, 敎育制度 形成의 要因으로서 政治的, 宗敎的, 社會的 要因을 다루었다. 프랑스 敎育制度의 구조는 다음과 같다. 義務敎育은 6才부터 시작되어 10年間 계속된다. 1967年 이전까지 의무 敎育은 14才까지 계속되었으나 1967年 이후 16才까지 계속됨으로써 의무 교육 연한이 8年에서 10年으로 연장되었다. 中等敎育은 前期와 後期로 분리되어 있다. 前期中等敎育은 5年의 初等課程을 수료한 後, 4年課程의 中等敎育코레쥬(Colleges d`Ensoignoment Secondaire)에서 실시한다. 後期中等敎育은 長期課程( Lycees)과 短期課程(Colleges techniguos)으로 분리되어 있다. 長期 後期中等學校 수료 후에 卒業 試驗인 바까로레아(baccalaureat)에 합격된 학생에 한하여 대학 입학 자격이 부여된다. 高等敎育은 一般大學(Universito)과 高等專門學校(Grandes Ecoles)에서 행해진다. 본 연구에서 얻은 結論으로서 프랑스 敎育制度의 特徵은 다음과 같다. 1. 프랑스는 中央集權的인 敎育行政機構에 의한 國家統制制度를 취하고 있다. 2. 프랑스는 敎育과 宗敎를 分理하는 世俗主義를 취하고 있다. 3. 프랑스에는 지배층과 대중 교육을 분리하는 複線型 學制의 잔재가 있다. 4. 프랑스는 資格取得主義에 따른 嚴格한 敎授와 國家考査制度를 실시한다. 5. 프랑스는 質이 높은 교육 수準을 유지함으로써 稱銳主義(ekitism)의 전통을 고수하고 있다. 5. 프랑스의 學制改革은, 敎育이 社會 文化的 改革의 도구라는 관점에서 실시되고 있다.;This study has been made with the main emphasis on various forces, which have molded the present system of the French education, in historical perspectives. It is true that comparative studies of foreign educational system will be got great use in an educational reform in one country. That why I have proceeded this study with the conception of comparative education, even though the French system of education only have been dolt with in this dissertation. The method of study I employed was the descriptive one through references and materials related to the French system of education. The contents of study were as follows. As the process of change in French system of education-the historical background of the dual system, the educational system of the Third and the Fifth Republic were studied. lifter dealing with the event of May 1968 paved the way to organize the present educational system, as the educational idea and the direction of an educational policy, the ideological background, the educational administration were studied. Finally, as the various factors of building up the educational system, the political factor, the religious factor and the social factor were studied. The structure of the French system of education was as follows. Compulsory schooling begins at age six. Until 1967 almost half of the children dropped out of school at age fourteen. Since 1967, compulsory schooling has been required until age 16, and 8 grads elementary school have added grades 9 and 10. The secondary school is divided into two : "lower" and "upper". The lower secondary education offers four years of work at the collages of secondary school, after the elementary schooling for five years. The upper secondary school is divided into "long" (lyce´e) and "short" (colleges technigues). These pupils who have been selected for the "long cycle" are intended to sit for the baccalaure´at. The possession of the baccalaure´at gives the right of entry into higher education. However, it does not entitle holders to direct entry into the Grandes e´coles. These schools by competitive examination enjoy the highest prestige in the educational system. In conclusion, the keynote of the French educational system studied by this dissertation could be summarized as follows. 1. France takes a national control system by the centralizing institutions. 2. France takes secularism, separated the education from the religion. 3. France takes the dual educational system divided into the ruling class and the popular education. 4. France takes the rigid instruction and the state examination according to qualification - accomplishment. 5. France holds to the tradition of elitism being kept up a high-level education. 6. The French reform of education is carried out as a means of social and cultural change.
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