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B. Russell의 敎育思想에 대한 新實在論的 照明

B. Russell의 敎育思想에 대한 新實在論的 照明
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New Realistic Interpretation for B. Russell's Educational Phiolosophy[실은 Philosophy] : Attaching Importance to his views on Human Nature and Knowledge
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대학원 교육학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Russell's theory of education has been studied constantly. But the genuine reason why his educational thoughts have had a great influence on education would depend upon his brilliant philosophical achievements rather than upon his educational ones. Because it is difficult to recognize that Russell's theory of education in his main educational books is established as a profound theoratical system. Russell's contributions to education can be understood only if they are seen in the larger context of his New Realistic philosophy and his times. It is the purpose of this study to examine the sources of Russell's theory of education, combined with his New Realism through philosophical approach, especially about his views on human nature and knowledge. As a conclusion, several facts are discovered as follows. Russell's New Realism can be characterized as Logical Atomism and Neutral Monism. These fundamental thoughts are also reflected on his views on human nature and knowledge. So his theory of education should be understood as an application of his philosophy, New Realism. It has been generally accepted that Russell emphasized the significance of individuality. This emphasis is consistent with his pluralistic principles of New Realism. According to New Realistic point of view, 'being' is defined as an atomistic unity representing each independent existence. But it is more important to interpret his Atomism in connecting with 'relation' between things. Because Russell also emphasized that to exist is to have a special relation to existence. Based on this conviction, Russell saw that there had to be some reconciliation between the individualism and the social conformity, in spite of his concern for the oppression of individual freedom by the all powerful authorities. It is found that Russell's fame as one of the greatest philosophers of education was achieved by his compatability with his New Realism, theory of e ducation, and educational practice, differed from shallow understanding of his thoughts only through his educational books. In other words, Russell had a firm hold on the role of philosophy through the educational reform of psychological structure of mankind, cultivating special characteristics of scientific spirit and rationality.;러쎌의 敎育理論에 對한 硏究는 많이 이루어져 왔다. 그런데 지금까지 러쎌의 敎育思想이 影響力을 발휘할 수 있었던 진정한 理由는, 그의 敎育的 貢獻 自體에 있었다기 보다는, 哲學的 업적에 있었다고 生覺된다. 러쎌의 敎育的 主著에 나타난 敎育理論은 매우 平易하고 平面的이어서, 深奧한 理論的 體系가 確立된 것으로는 보기 어렵기 때문이다. 그러므로 러쎌의 敎育思想의 包括的인 理解와 現代敎育에 기여한 貢獻度에 對한 正確한 把握은, 그의 新實在論的 哲學과 時代的 背景에 대한 複合的 硏究에 의해서만 비로서 可熊하다고 믿어진다. 따라서 本 論文에서는 종래와 같이, 러쎌의 敎育理論만을 강조하는 硏究와는 달리, 哲學思想과 결합된 敎育理論을 考察하기 위하여, 敎育의 核心을 이루는 人間論과 知識論을 중심으로, 그의 新實在論과 敎育理論의 連結點을 탐색하고자 하는 것을 目的으로 하였다. 硏究方法으로는 러쎌의 著書를 통한 文獻硏究이다. 그 結果, 그의 新實在論的 哲學은 論理的 原子論 및 中性的 一元論을 中心으로 理解해야 하며, 따라서 그의 人間論·知識論도 新實在論的 特徵과 관련하여 把握해야 한다. 一般的으로 러쎌의 敎育思想이 個人主義的 경향만이 농후한 것으로 理解되고 있는 것은 잘못이라 하겠다. 그 理由는 러쎌이 人間을 新實在論의 多元論的 宇宙原理와 부합하는 獨立된 個個의 原子的, 個體로 把握하고 있는 동시에, 個體와 個體間의 '關係'를 重要視하기 때문이다. 人間은 다른 存在와의 특별한 關係를 否定하고서는 그存在의 意義를 부여할 수 없다고 믿는 러쎌은, 人間의 個人性과 함께 社會性도 强調하고 있다. 즉 그의 原子論은 '열려진 原子'이다. 또한 러쎌 敎育思想家的 位置는, 그의 敎育的 著書만을 통하여 얻게된 皮相的 理解와는 달리, 그의 哲學·敎育理論·敎育實踐의 밀착된 關係위에서 確立된 것으로 把握되었다. 즉 러쎌은 哲學과 敎育理論·敎育實踐을 一貫하여, 科學的 精神과 合理性을 추구하였으며, 특히 敎育을 통한 人間性의 回復을 기도하였다.
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