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韓國 天主敎 敎育事業의 發展過程과 問題點
- 韓國 天主敎 敎育事業의 發展過程과 問題點
- Other Titles
- DEVELOPMENT OF CATHOLIC CHURCH SCHOOLS IN KOREA : SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR FURTHER IMPROVEMENT
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육학과
- 한국천주교; 교육사업; 교육학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 韓國의 近代化는 西洋思潮와 文物의 導入으로 始作되었으며 基督敎의 傳來는 祉會 文化的으로 韓國의 近代化를 促進하였고 新敎育도 이에 影響을 받았다. 따라서 本 硏究에서는 未公開되거나 未整理된 史料와 관계 文獻들을 통하여 韓國의 近代化를 促進시킨 天主敎 敎育事業의 기원과 發展過程을 살펴보고 오늘의 天主敎 敎育을 再評價하기 위하여 韓國 天主敎 敎育事業의 現況을 分析 評價하고 問題點을 指摘하여 앞으로의 敎育事業 改善을 위한 效率的인 方安을 提示하는 것을 目的으로 한다. 이러한 目的 達成을 위하여
1. 韓國 天主敎 宣敎의 過程
2. 韓國 天主敎 敎育機關의 기원과 發展過程
3. 韓國 天主敎 敎育事業의 現況
4. 韓國 天主敎 敎育事業의 問題點과 改善方安
의 硏究 問題를 주로 文獻分析的인 方法으로 考察하였으며 1世紀를 넘는 韓國 天主敎 敎育事業의 전모를 把握하는 것은 어려우므로 그 중요한 과정만을 다루었고 敎育事業의 現況에 있어서도 운영면의 學校財政 人事, 施設에 대해서는 제외되었다.
韓國 天主敎의 傳來는 日本과 中國을 통하여 이루어졌다. 明國에서 마테오 릿치(Matteo Ricci)神父가 1601年에 兆京에 南堂(聖堂)을 세우고 눈부신 전교활동을 하고 있을 때에 使節로 兆京에 간 우리나라 高官들과 學者들에 의하여 西歐 科學書籍과 天主敎 敎理書들이 우리나라에 도입되었고 그후 南人 學者들이 敎理書들을 본격적으로 硏究함으로써 이땅에 天主敎가 싹트게 되었다. 1784年에 李承黛이 베드루라는 本名으로 領洗를 받고 같은 해에 李蘖, 權日身에게 洗禮를 주었으며 마침내 이들은 金範禹 집에서 朝鮮敎會를 창설하였다. 이렇게 韓國敎會는 學者들의 자발적인 연구에 의해서 창설되었으니 이는 世界 傳敎史上 유례없는 韓國 天主敎만의 特微이다. 그러나 敎會는 탄생 후 몇달도 못되어 해산되고 103년간의 公的迫害가 시작되었다. 그후 1882年에 韓美通商條約을 계기로 天主敎 금압책은 완화되었고 日帝下의 격동적인 政治的 祉會的 狀況은 民族的 自覺을 불러 일으켜 각지에서 국민교육운동이 일어났고 基督敎는 開化運動을 통하여 近代敎育을 싹트게 하였다. 近代敎育의 發芽에 求心的 역할을 한 天主敎會의 敎育事業은 一般敎育, 神學敎育, 師範敎育으로 分類되며 一般敎育은 當時의 祉會象과 學校의 發展 形態에 따라 舊韓末의 敎育, 日政下의 敎育, 解放後의 敎育의 3期로 區分하여 고찰하였다. 舊韓末에는 1885年경에 漢文學院이 設立되어 당시의 한글을 가르치는 유일한 학교로 韓國 天主敎會 初等敎育의 효시가 되었으며 또 이 시기의 特徵은 여성교육이 처음으로 실시된 것이다. 日政下에서는 天主敎의 敎育事業이 학당적 성격에서 현대적 학교로 조직화 또는 내실화 되어가는 과정이었으며 工業學校와 商業學校를 設立하여 현대적인 실업교육을 실시하였다. 解放後의 敎育은 學校人口가 폭발하는 팽창기를 맞아 天主敎系 중등학교도 대거 설립되어 1978年 現在 68個校 中에서 65個의 學校가 解放後에 設立되었다. 특히 1960年代에 맹·농아를 위한 학교가 시작되었으며 다양한 敎育活動으로 質的 또는 量的으로 않은 發展을 이루었다.
神學敎育은 海舛派遣 敎育과 國內神學校 敎育으로 實施하였고 마카오와 페낭神學校에 派遣된 神學生들은 朝鮮人으로서는 最初로 酉歐的 敎育을 받았다. 한편 國內에서는 速成神學敎育을 시도하였고 1856年에 충청도 제천군 구학리 배론에 설립된 神學校는 처음으로 西洋式 敎育을 실시한 學校로서 改新敎의 元山孝舍보다 27년이나 앞선 것이다.
1885年에 설립한 원주 부흥골의 神學堂을 1887年에 龍山 涵碧享으로 옮겼으며, 이 神學校는 오늘날 카톨릭大學 神學部와 聖神高等學校의 전신이다.
範敎育은 天主敎 敎育觀을 터득한 敎師養成과 時代의 要請에 따라 태통을 보게 되었으나 지원자 부족과 日帝의 간섭으로 2年 後에 폐교하고 말았다.
이렇게 하여 天主敎는 西洋文物을 수용하기 위한 매개체의 역할로 우리나라 近代化의 과정에 밑거름이 되었으며 解放과 더불어 초등교육에서 대학교육에까지 또한 特殊敎育을 包含한 多樣한 敎育을 展開하였다. 이러한 발전과정을 거쳐 오늘에 이른 天主敎會는 現在 全國에서 幼稚園을 包含하여 283個의 學校를 運營하고 있으며 各級學校 現況을 분석한 결과 天主敎의 敎育事業은 正規 中等敎育에 致重하고 있고 그외의 敎育分野에 대해서는 不振한 實情이다. 그리고 맹·농아를 위한 敎育機關은 있으나 정신박약아를 위한 특수학교는 전혀 없다. 따라서 앞으로의 보다 효과적인 교육사업의 수행을 위하여 다음의 개선방안을 提示한다.
1. 私學의 特性과 自律性을 살리기 위하여 學生들에게 學校選擇의 自由를 주어야 하며 宗敎系 學校의 特性을 살리기 위하여 敎育課程의 融通性있는 政策을 配慮해야 한다.
2. 앞으로의 학교는 農村地域에 優先的으로 說立하고 旣存大學에 夜間部를 두어 敎育의 機會를 擴大시키며 大學敎育에 力點을 두는 한편 幼兒敎育을 더욱 擴充시켜 大衆化시켜야 한다.
3. 社會의 切實한 要請을 勘案하여 정신박약아를 위한 특수교육을 실시하여 가장 소외된 자들에게 敎育의 平等思想을 실천해야 한다.
4. 各 學校에서는 敎育理念과 敎育內容이 일관되게 조화를 이루어야 하며 各級 學校間의 유대와 天主敎的 統一性있는 敎育을 위하여 敎育을 全般的으로 計劃, 統制, 調整하는 全國規模의 敎育機構를 設置함이 바람직하다.;Modernization of Korea was started with the importation of Western thought through the current of Western civilization. It was caused by the introduction of Christianity which influence has contributed very much towards the modernization of Korea educationally, socially, and culturally.
The purpose of this study is to revaluate the present Catholic education in Korea and to propose suggestions, after analyzing and evaluating the present Catholic school situation in order to improve these works for the future. In order to achieve this purpose, following the outline below.
1. History and beginnings of Catholicism in Korea.
2. Reviewing the origins and development of the Catholic schools in Korea.
3. Present some statistical information concerning the Catholic schools of Korea.
4. The problems facing the Catholic school today, along with the possible solutions in the form of some suggestions. It is very difficult to find complete data relating to the earliest periods of Catholic educational institutions which go back one hundred years, so that we will but touch on them, and exclude such matters as finances, personnel, numbers of school facilities along with their descriptive methods.
Catholicism was introduced into Korea through China and Japan. Fr. Mattew Ricci built a church in Peking around 1601, and worked actively in China until his death in 1610. Korea, as a close neighbor and ally of China, sent emmisaries annually to Peking, and it was through this route that these high officials through the years brought back ideas of Western science and not least, Catholic doctrine books and others, that these scholars accepted the Christian faith on their own. Lee Seoung Hun was baptized Peter in 1784 at the hands of French priest in Peking. When he returned he taught others and began to baptize his friends, Lee Puok and Keun Il Sin. In this way the Church grew in the first years without the assistance of any foreign missionaries. This is a unique event in the history of the Catholic Church.
The infant church was dispersed after few months and the first bloody persecution began in 1801. In 1882, religious freedom was declared by the Korean government with the signing of the KoreanAmerican Treaty; but still there were spordic persecutions of Christians beyond this date.
In 1910, a new development arose in the Land of the Morning Calm when their neighbor, Japan, seized control of the government which control was to last until 1945. During this period, a spirit of nationalism arose among the populace which caused the awakening of modern education through the influence of Christian civilization brought from the West.
The Catholic Church, being first on the seene, thus was able to contribute to the awakening of modern education through its important role of presenting Catholic thought which was totally new to the people. This role has continued to the present day, and it has been given special impetus and direction by the Second Vatican Council. Its Document "Declaration on Christian Education" gives clear focus as to the aims of Christian education.
Catholic education can be classified into three categories : General Education, Theological Education, and Teachers' Training Education. General Education in turn is divided into three historical parts :
1. Education process during the latter part of the Lee Dynasty.
2. Education development under the control of Japan.
3. Education into modern times after liberation from Japan in 1945.
The earliest contribution of the Catholic Church in General Education was the establishment of the COLLEGE CHINOIS in Seoul in 1885 by the French missionary priests. This was the first primary-level educational institution founded in Korea. It taught the young students not only Chinese characters, but also Korean language. During this early period, the Catholic Church, also began the education of young girls when French Sisters arrived in Korea.
During the period of control under Japan, the Catholic educational system moved to modernize their schools along with the newly introduced Japanese system which was introduced nationally. It was during this period that the Catholic Church instituted their first technical and business schools.
After the liberation of the nation in 1945, the educational system increased remarkably as shown by the statistics of the secondary schools. Before 1945, there were only three Catholic secondary schools while presently there are sixty-eight. Of note were the establishment of special schools for the deaf and blind which were begun in this post-liberation period. Quality as well as quantity has been seen and continually stressed during this period of rapid growth.
Theological education was accomplished by first sending promising students clandistinely overseas, and then later by establishing a seminary right in the country.
Students were sent to seminaries in Macao and Penang and thus were the first Koreans to go abroad to receive a Western education. Kim Tae Keon was the first Korean priest educated abroad and ordained;he suffered martyrdom in Korea in 1846.
Even though religious freedom was not allowed, French missionaries continued work in the country and secretly began a quasi-seminary for promising students in 1856 where they established a seminary at Paeron, Che Chon. This can then be considered the very first school to practice Westernized education in the country, and it preceded by twenty-seven years Wuon San Hak Sa, which founded in 1883 by the Protestants.
In 1885 a second seminary was built in Puheung-gol, Won Ju, which was later removed to Yeong San in Seoul after two years. The first quasi-seminary founded in 1856 was dispended by the persecution of 1866. This second seminary was the first school of higher education in Korea. It grew into what is now known as the Catholic College with its two distinct branches--the Catholic Provincial Seminary and the Catholic Medical College as one part, and the Seung Sin High School of the present day, as a second part.
Teachers' training schools were established during the Japanese occupation period to cultivate Catholic teachers for Catholic schools and to respond to the social needs of the time, but they were soon forced to close after two years due to a shortage of students and also excessive interference by the Japanese authorities.
Following the liberation of the nation from Japan, the Catholic Church continued to develop various education processes including special education for the deaf and blind, as well as the elaboration of the total education cycle from primary grades to higher on-going education. Of special note is the interest in the preschoolers or kindergarten education. Presently there are 283 Catholic Schools including kindergartens in the country.
Statisticly speaking, it can be analyzed and evaluated that the Catholic educational system in Korea has concentrated on formal secondary education primarily and adolescent year students secondarily in the urban areas more so than with those in the provincial areas. This is something that should be remedied in the future. Also, unfortunately, it is to be noted that there still are no schools for the mentally retarded children, although the St. John of God Brothers in Kwang Ju operate a day clinic for retarded people--both children and adults.
The following are some suggestions offered to perhaps accomplish further educational development in the Catholic School System in the future;
1. A more just system of selection of students in the secondary schools. The present lottery system is very unfair as Catholic students do not have a choice of attending the Catholic Schools they wish to attend. This lottery system does not afford equity for promising students. Furthermore, Chatholic Schools are treated as secular ones which allow for no religious education as part of the cirriculum along with the other subjects. A more flexible polity of accepting and placing students in secondary school is thus a most important criteria.
2. More rural schools should be developed in the provincial counties and districts. Secondly, existing colleges in the country should expand their school schedules and cirriculum to include night courses for working people, or for poor students who cannot afford day school and who must work days to finance schooling at night.
3. School life and activities as well as teaching materials have to be brought more into harmony and unity in the school.
It is thus recommended that a national Catholic Education Organization be established to monitor administrative planning, control and coordination in all the Catholic Schools of the country. At present this is not existing.
4. Accept the responsibility to care for the needs of special education groups such as the mentally retarded, the blind, the deaf, the handicapped and the poor, and to show and practice Christian Love to these people with the idea of equality to all.
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