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우리나라 私立國民學校의 實態에 關한 硏究
- 우리나라 私立國民學校의 實態에 關한 硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) study of private elementary school in Korea
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육학과
- 사립국민학교; 의무교육; 취학아동
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 硏究의 目的은 첫째 私立國民學校의 起源과 發展過程을 調査하고 둘째 1975年 現在 그 現況을 알아보고 세째 私學의 理念과 올바른 兒童觀에 依한 몇가지 提言을 하려는 것이다.
硏究方法으로는 文獻硏究와 調査硏究方法을 使用하였다.
文獻硏究에서는 우리나라 義務敎育의 發達과 私立國民學校의 發達過程을 文獻, 雜誌, 新聞등 각종 자료를 參考하여 서술하였고 調査硏努에서도 全國私立國民學校에 質問紙를 내어 現況과 實態를 把握하고 面談에 依하여 이를 補完하였다.
本 硏究의 對象은 全國 83個 私立國民學校로 하였고 面談은 주로 서울市內의 私立國民學校 設立者, 校長, 校監, 敎師 및 奬學士였다.
그 結果 얻어진 內容을 要約하면,
1. 우리나라 私立初等敎育機關의 始初는 高句麗의 扁堂이고 近代式 最初의 私立國民學校는 1892年 4月에 設立한 仁川의 永化學校이다.
2. 1960年 以後 私立國民學校가 量的으로 膨脹한 것은 우리나라 義務敎育 완화와 그 정상화를 위한 한 수단이었다.
3. 現在 私立國民學校는 서울에 39校, 釜山에 7校, 京畿道 12校, 江原道 5校, 忠北 3校, 忠南 4校, 慶北이 4校, 慶南 3校, 全北 3校, 全南 3校 모두 83個校이며 設立別로는 師範大學附屬國民學校 5校, 單獨法人體가 19校, 나머지 59校는 大學(校), 中·高等學校 倂設로 되어 있다.
4. 私立國民學校 敎員의 經歷은 높게 나타났으며 이에 따라 연령도 높다. 全國 敎員의 經歷에 比해 약 10年이 높은 편이다.
5. 시설은 普通 敎室은 1296室이 完備 되어 있고 特別敎室은 部分的으로 保有하고 있으나 都市學校가 좋은 편이다.
6. 私立國民學校 59교중에는 (질문지를 보내준 수) 學習의 效率化를 위해 진력하고 있다. 그중 13개교는 科目에 따라 교과담임제와 학급담임제를 倂用하고 있으며 또한 宗敎敎育을 하는 學校도 14校이다.
以上의 硏究結果 다음과 같이 提言한다.
1. 私立國民學校의 運營者들은 透徹한 敎育理念과 兒童觀을 정립해야 한다.
2. 私立國民學校는 우리나라 初等敎育의 先導的 役割을 담당해야 한다. 즉 實驗, 硏努場이 되어야 한다. 그임무를 遂行하기 위해서는 敎員은 4年制以上의 資格所持者로 代置되거나 그에 해당한 硏修가 必要하며 특히 師大附屬國民學校 敎員은 더욱 절실하다.
3. 施設을 特殊한것을 갖추어 놓는것도 중요하나 全兒童이 活用할 수 있도록 施設이 整備되어야 한다.
4. 私立國校의 敎員중에서도 經歷과 資質로 보아 妥當한 敎員은 公立敎師와 마찬가지로 敎育行政全般에 참여할 수 있도록해야하며 또한 公私立間에 人事交流가 制度的으로 마련되어야 하겠다.
5. 私立國民學校는 公立國民學校나 마찬가지로 國家의 義務敎育을 代行하는 만큼 國家가 支援 育成하여야 한다.;The purpose of the present study is firstly to trace the origin and developmental process of the privately operated elementary schools in Korea, secondly to review the current state of affairs in these schools, and thirdly to present some suggestions concerning the educational philosophy and interpretations of child psychology upon which private elementary schools should be based in the future.
Methods used in this study included an extensive survey of literature available on the subject, and circulation of questionnaires to the eighty-three private schools which have been founded during the period of 1962-75 in response to the national educational policy of encouraging private initiative in the elementary education. (Those private schools which had been in existence prior to these dates have been excluded from this study.) In addition to the questionnaires, personal interviews were conducted with a randomly selected group of founders, headmasters, supervisors of teachers, and teachers from the Seoul area, and members of the school supervisory board of the City of Seoul.
Findings can be summarized as follows :
1. The origin of private institutions for elementary education dates back to the "Kyong Dang" in the Kokuryo period, and the first modern private elementary school in the country was the "Yeong Hwa School", established in April, 1892 in Inchon.
2. The sudden mushrooming of private elementary schools in the 1960's was ascribable to a deliberate government policy. Faced with a rapid increase in the number of school-age children and the failure of the existing facilities to absorb them, the government, which was committed to the principle of compulsory education through the sixth grade, decided to encourage private initiative in the field of elementary education.
3. The new private schools thus established are heavily concentrated in the major urban areas, 39 out of 83 being found in Seoul, 7 in Pusan, 12 in the Kyonggi Province, with the rest scattered throughout the country.
4. Of these 5 are experimental schools attached to teacher's colleges, 19 are independent establishments, and the rest, 59, are subsidiary establishments owned by foundations which already have under its aegis a university or secondary school.
5. Teachers in the private schools by comparison with their peers in the public schools are in general older and more experienced in the field of elementary education.
6. These private schools in general offer adequate educational facilities, and some are even equipped for specialized education programs. On the whole, however, those in the urban communities are batter equipped than those in the rural areas.
7. Thirteen of these schools were found to be using a mixture of the departmental system and class teacher system for the optimization of educational effect. Fourteen offer religious education as part of thier regular curriculum.
Elementary education in a democratic society should be both compulsory and cost-free. Therefore, elementary schools in which individuals bear the major brunt of the educational cost are bound to disappear in the end. In the meantime, however, those privateschools, so long as they exist, should be guided to serve the purpose for which they were founded, namely, that of supplementing the existing public school system, with the least amount of waste. Although most of these private schools at the present may boast of physical facilities superior to those found in the public schools, it cannot be said that they were properly tailored to meet the actual needs of the pupuils.
On the basis of the foregoing analysis, the following recommendations are presented :
1. Founders and administrators of the private schools should be persons with a clearly defined educational philosophy and an expert understanding of child psychology. Private schools can maintain their raison d'etre in the future only by taking a boldly innovative and experimental approach in their educational program, which, the public schools, because of budgetary and bureacratic limitations, cannot.
2. To play such a pioneering role, the private schools should recruit specially well-qualified teachers, with four years of university education as a minimum requirement. The school facilities should be fitted to the actual educational needs of the pupils, and not to the demands of public opinion or parental pressure.
3. Exchange of personnel between private and public schools, private schools and government agencies concerned with elementary education should be encouraged and institutionalized so that the teachers in the private schools may be freed from the isolation syndrome they seem to be suffering from now.
4. Private schools which are contributing to the national cause of compulsory elementary education should be entitiled to government subsidy. If such financial assistance is not available, the private school should be allowed by law to relegate the cost of operation to the parents of the pupils.
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