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社會階層이 個人의 能力에 미치는 影響에 관한 一硏究
- 社會階層이 個人의 能力에 미치는 影響에 관한 一硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL CLASS ON THE INDIVIDUAL ABILITY
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육학과
- 사회계층; 개인; 능력
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 論文은 敎育機會均等이라늘 理念에 입각하여, 社會階層은 個人의 能力에 어떠한 影響을 미치고 있는가를 알아 보고자 하였다.
硏究의 理論的 背景을 마련하기 위하여, 社會階層의 一般的 理論과 社會階層과 敎育機會의 問題를 考察해 보았고, 다음으로 社會階層은 個人의 能力에 어떠한 影響을 미치고 있는지를 밝히기 위하여 階層에 따라 그 要因을 比較 分析하였다. 硏究方法으로는, 國內外 着書와 學術硏究誌, 統計的 資料들을 通한 文款硏究와 理論的 硏究를 뒷받침하기 위하여 서울市內 城北區에 있는 漢成女子中學校 3學年 中 5個班(331)을 임의로 選定하여 學生의 生活記錄簿와 環境調査書 및 健康記錄簿를 調査 記錄하여 階層別 身體發達(身長, 體重, 胸圍), 知能, 成績, 抱負를 比較 分析하였다.
本 硏究의 結果는 다음과 같다.
1. 社會階層은 身體發澾에 影響을 미친다.
社會階層과 身長과의 相關係數는 r=0.53으로서 確實히 相關關係가 있다.
社會階層과 體重과의 相關係數는 r=0.25로서 相關 있기는 하나 얕다.
社會階層과 胸圍와의 相關係數는 r=0.14로서 거의 相關이 없다. 여기에서 身體發澾은 身長이 가장 後天約인 影響을 크게 받고 있 음이 드러았다. 一般的으로 社會經濟的으로 上層階級의 學生이 下層階級의 學生보다 發育이 좋고 健康狀態도 우수하다. 이는 後天的 環境에서 오는 社會階層의 影響이라고 단정을 내릴 수 있다. 뿐만 아니라 健康한 身體發達은 健康한 精神發達을 意味한다.
2. 社會階層과 知能과의 相關係數는 r=0.63으로서 確實히 相關關係가 있다. 이는 知能은 遺傳的인 要因보다 文化環境的인 要因에 依해서 더 크게 影響을 받는다는 것을 意未한다. 즉, 타고난 潛在的 能力을 좋은 社會文化的 및 敎育的 環境에 依해 얼마나 啓發했느냐에 따라서 知能指數가 決定된다는 것이다.
3. 社會階層과 成績과의 相關係數는 r=0.32로서 確實히 相關關係가 있다. 즉, 一般的으로 家庭의 社會經濟的 階層이 높은 경우 學業成績이 높고 社會經濟的 階層이 낮은 경우 學業成績도 낮다는 事實을 얻게 되었다.
4. 社會階層과 職業에 對한 抱負에서도 _一般的으로 上層이나 中層階級 學生들은 專門職, 普理職을 希望하는 比翠이 높고, 下層階級에는 그 比翠이이 낮다. 또 經濟的 環境과 關係가 깊은 藝術分野에도 마찬가지 結果를 보이고 있다. 中層이나 上層階級은 成功志向的이나 下層階級은 現在志向的이라는 事實을 얻게 되었다.
本 硏究에서 社會階層은 個人의 能力에 意義있는 肯定的 影響을 미치고 있다는 結論에 到澾하였다. 이러한 結論을 敎育의 機會均等이라는 理念에 입각하여 볼 때, 社會階層 影響으로 오는 能力差를 最小限度로 줄이기 위해서는 績極的인 福祉的 社會政策 및 敎育政策의 배려가 있어야 되리라고 믿는바이다.;This study is designed to answer the question of what influence social class has on the individual ability in view of the democratic iddal of providing everyone with an equal educationall opportunity.
We have surveyed the theories of social class in general and the influence of social class on the individual ability in particular in order to provide for the theoretical frame-work of this study. For this purpose, we have conducted quite an extensive literature research witri a number of scholarly works, including books, monographs, and articles published abroad as well as at home. Out of this literature research, we have extracted a number of variables which are differentially associated with an individual ability according to social classes to which he belongs.
We have also conducted a field research to verify the findings of the literature research on the relationship between the individual ability and social class in the Korean setting. We have randomly selected 331 students from the five senior classes of Hansong Girls' Junior High School in Seoul City. We have obtained various indexes of an individual's ability, that is, the measurements of the 331 students' physical development(height, weight, and chest measurement), intelligence, academic achievement, and career aspiration from our careful combing through a pile of the students' files, including their health records, kept by the school. As a supplementary evidence, we have also relied on a numberr of the results of statistical research conducted by others.
The findings of this study include :
(1) Social class affects physical development. The correlational quotient in our study is r=0.53, which shows that
physical development is meaningfully correlated to social class. Height is affirmatively but a bit remotely correlated to social class(the correlational quotient is r=0.25). Chest measurement is only remotely correlated to social class(the correlational quotient is r=0.14). Our finding is that one's height is most significantly affected by postnatal factor- In general, students from the upper class show.better indexes of growth and health than those from the lower class. This fact seems to be an outcome of social class, the postnatal circumstantial factors. This finding is important in that healthy intellectual developments are generally conditioned by healthy physical developments.
(2) Intelligence is established as closely associated with social class(the correlational quotient is r=0.63). The finding is that intelligence is more affected by cultural and circumstantial factors than hereditary factors. One's intelligence quotient is largely determined depending upon how his potential intelligence is cultivated by favorable cultural and circumstantial factors.
(3) Academic achievement is clearly associated with social class(the correlational quotient is r=0.52). Students from the upper class generally showed a relatively high academic achievement and those from the lower class showed a relatively poor academic achievement.
(4) In the correlationship between one's career aspiration and social class, students from the upper and the middle classes showed a higher rate of aspiration for the professional and managerial careers than those from the lower class. An identical result was obtained in regard to artist careers which are closely associated with eoonomic factors. Our finding is that students from the upper and the middle classes are generally achievement-oriented and those from the lower class are quite presently oriented.
We have come to our conclusion that social class has a meaningful influence on one's ability. From the perspective of the democratic ideal of equal opportunity in education, therefore, it seems that positive social welfare, social policy, and educational policy measures are necessarily required, beyond the conventional educational confinements, to reduce the individual ability differentials, which result from social class to a permissible minimum.
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