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이스라엘 敎育制度에 關한 考察
- 이스라엘 敎育制度에 關한 考察
- Other Titles
- (A) Study on the Educational System of Israel
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육학과
- 이스라엘; 교육제도; Educational System
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 論文은 이스라엘 敎育制度를 硏究하여 韓國에 紹介하고자 한 것이다. 그것은 外國의 敎育制度를 硏究함으로써 自國의 敎育制度를 보다 깊이 認識하고 理解할 수 있으며, 나아가서는 自國의 敎育發展과 敎育制度의 改革 및 計劃에 도움을 줄수 있다는 比較敎育學的인 側面에서 試圖한 것이다.
硏究對象國을 이스라엘로 擇한 것은 韓國이 1968年 國民敎育憲章의 制定, 公布以後 自我의 發見, 主體性 確立, 共同體意識, 歷史的 召命意識, 愛國愛族 등을 强調하므로 本 硏究者는 여러 文獻을 通해서 이스라엘의 유태民族이 世界에서 가장 共同體意識, 愛國愛族, 歷史的 召命意識이 强한 民旅中의 하나라는 것을 發見하였고, 또한 많은 碩學들을 輩出한 民族이라는 點에서이다.
硏究方法은 文獻을 通한 記述的 方法을 使用하였다.
硏究範圍는 敎育目的, 敎育行政, 敎育財政, 基本學制, 學校敎育, 社會敎育등 敎育制度 全般을 다루었고, 敎育制度의 形成과 發展에 影響을 미친 歷史的 背景과 社會學的 基礎로서 政治, 經濟, 社會를 다루었다.
本 硏究를 通해서 나타난 이스라엘 敎育制度를 紹介하면 다음과 같다. 이스라엘에는 유테人과 아랍人이 살고 있는데, 유태人 學校에서는 히브리語를, 아랍人 學校에서는 아랍語를 各各 敎授媒介體로 하고 있다.
國家敎育目的은 유태文化의 價値와 科學의 業績, 祖國을 사랑하고 國家와 유태民族에 忠誠하며, 農業과 勞動의 基礎訓練을 시키고 開拓精神을 기르며, 또한 自由와 平等, 寬容과 相互協助 및 人類愛를 土台로 한 社會의 具現에 努力하는 것을 基本으로 하고,또 모든 유태人의 敎育機關에서는 "유태人 意識"을 强調하고 있다.
敎育行政 및 敎育財政은 中央敎育文化部와 地方敎育當局이 共同으로 運營, 維持하고 있다. 初等敎育은 無償義務敎育이나, 學父母의 所得에 따라 自發的인 支援을 받고 있다.
基本學制는 8-4-3制였으나, 1968年 敎育制度의 改革에 따라 6-3-3-3制로 하여 中學校까지 義務敎育으로 하여, 1969~70學年度부터 實驗實施하고 있다.
義務敎育法은 5才의 幼稚園 1年과 6~13才의 初等學校 8年과 14~17才의 靑少年중 初等敎育을 받지 못했거나 完全히 마치지 못한 者에게는 無償義務敎育을 實時할 것을 規定하고 있다.
初等學校는 國立一般學校와 國立宗敎學校로 나누어지며, 8學年 卒業時에 國家考査(Seker)를 치루게 되는데, 그 考査成績에 따라 中等學校 入學生의 授業料가 決定된다.
中等學校는 人文中等學校와 職業中等學校, 農業中等學校, 綜合中等學校가 있다. 大學進學生은 大學入學資格考査(Bagrut)에 應試하여야 한다.
高等敎育機關으로는 敎育大學과 一般大學이 있다. 一般大學은 取得 學點에 따라 卒業하게 되므로 3年이 지난 후에는 學生의 能力에 따라 卒業한다.
社會敎育은 靑少年敎育, 成人敎育, 特히 키브츠內의 社會敎育은 注目할 만하다.
本 硏究에서 얻은 이스라엘 敎育의 特徵은 結論的으로 다음과 같이 말할 수 있다.
1. 이스라엘 敎育은 유태文化와 傳統, "유태人 意識"을 强調하고 있다.
2. 이스라엘 敎育은 多樣性속에서 統一性을 追求하고 있다.
3. 이스라엘 敎育은 敎育의 機會均等을 强調하고 있다.
4 .이스라엘 敎育은 地方分權化를 追求하고 있다.
5. 이스라엘 敎育은 開拓精神의 涵養을 强調하고 있다.
6. 이스라엘은 平生敎育을 指向하고 있다.
7. 이스라엘은 敎育을 通한 社會建設을 追求하고 있다.;This thesis is making an attempt to look into the educational system of Israel and introduce it to Korea. Such an endeavour, in author's opinion, will help understand better the Korean educational system in a comparative way and may thereby be suggestive to possible reforms or plannings of the educational system of Korea and its further development.
Ever since declaration of the Charter of Education of Korea in 1968, Republic of Korea is putting, above anything else in the field of education, a strong emphasis on such as discovery of national identity, establishment of self-identity, consciousness of community identity, sense of historically bound common responsibility, and patriotism. In this connection, the present author views, Israel shares much in common. For instance, the Jewish is a people who for centuries has lived up to the principles of their own community identity, patriotism, history-bound sense of responsibility, etc. This is precisely the reason why Israel is picked up for the research subject of this paper.
The method applied here may be said to be a descriptive study which is mainly based on a literature survey. The scope is a rather general one-covering from the Israeli educational structure, such as its goals, administration, finance, school and social educations to the environmental factors that are believed to affect the education -- the Israeli history, politics, economy, and society.
The research findings can be summarized as followings : In Israel the Jews and the Arabs have lived together and each of these two racial groups uses different language in school -- Hebrew in Jewish schools and Arab in Arab schools.
The object of Jewish education emphasizes on the values of Jewish culture and the achievements of science, on love of the homeland and loyalty to the State and the Jewish people, on training in agricultural and industrial arts, on pioneering and on striving towards a society built on freedom, equality, tolerance, mutual assistance and love of mankind. In short, "the Jewish consciousness" is the guiding principle in every Jewish educational institution.
Responsibility for the maintenance and operation of educational administration and finance is shared jointly by the State and the local authorities. The primary school course is free and cumpulsory, but depending upon the level of parents' income the schools can accept voluntary assistance from them.
The basic school structures were eight years of primary school, four years of secondary school and in general three years of higher education. However, according to the proposed reforms of educational structure in 1968, it became six years of primary, three years of intermediate, three years of secondary, and three years of higher education. Up to the intermediate schools education is supposed to be compulsory. This proposed plan was being experimented since : the academic year of 1969-70.
The Compulsory Education Law provides that a free and compulsory education shall be given to those of Kindergarten at the age of five, the eighth graders of primary school between six and thirteen, and those whose age ranges from fourteen to seventeen and who either lack or have not completed the primary education. The primary school system includes the State general schools and the State religious schools. At the completion of the eight-year primary education children are to take the State examination(Seker) and according to their records in this test their rates of tuition for the secondary education are determined.
The secondary education system includes academic schools, vacational schools, agricultural schools, and comprehensive schools Those who wish to go to a college should receive the matriculation(Bagrut) certificate by passing the State-run examination.
The higher education includes teacher-training colleges and universities. A student at a university may be eligible for his or her Bachelar's degree after a minimum enrollment of three years, for the baccalaurelate is obtained according to the total number of scores a student earns.
The social education includes youth education and adult education. Especially noteworthy is that offered by the Kibbutzim.
In conclusion, some of the significant characteristics of the Israeli education are :
1) It emphasizes the Jewish culture and tradition, especially "the Jewish consciousness"
2) It pursues an integrity admist diversity
3) It strongly supports equal opportunity of education
4) It purports decentralization of education
5) It attempts to enhance the spirit of being pioneers
6) It is oriented toward a life-long education and
7) It ultimately aims at constructing the Israeli society through national education.
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