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학업성취도에 따른 읽기전략훈련이 이해력 향상에 미치는 효과에 관한 연구

Title
학업성취도에 따른 읽기전략훈련이 이해력 향상에 미치는 효과에 관한 연구
Authors
김계욱
Issue Date
1992
Department/Major
교육대학원 어학교육전공한국어교육분야
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원 어학교육전공 한국어교육분야
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 연구에서는 읽기전략훈련이 고등학교 2학년 남학생들의 독해력 향상에 미치는 효과를 실험방법을 통하여 알아 보았다. 학생들이 읽은 글을 잘 이해하고 그 내용을 오랫동안 잘 기억시키는데 도움을 줄 수 있는 읽기전략을 개발하고 학생들에게 읽기전략을 습득시키는 것은 절실하게 요구되는 과제이다. 본 연구에서는 읽기전략훈련으로 제목보고 예상하기, 중심내용 파악하기, 요약하기, 질문예측하기의 네 가지 활동을 적용하였다. 본 연구에 참가한 피험자들은 각각 실험집단(51명)과 통제집단(50명)으로 나뉘어 적용되었고 각 집단은 학업성취도에 따라 상위집단, 중위집단, 하위집단으로 나뉘어졌다. 학생들은 훈련전 측정단계(1차시-2차시), 훈련단계(3차시-14차시), 훈련후 측정단계(15차시-16차시)의 3단계의 순서로 6주간 실험에 참여하였다. 읽기자료를 정확하게 이해하는 능력인 이해력은 학습자들의 기본적이고 핵심적인 능력으로 간주되고 있으며 높은 수준의 이해력을 가진 학습자는 낮은 수준의 이해력을 가진 학습자보다 더 성공적인 학습결과를 얻게 될 것이므로 이해력을 향상시킬 수 있는 방안모색은 그 의의가 크며 중요하다 할 수 있다. 그러므로 읽기전략훈련이 이해력과 전략사용에 유의한 효과를 미칠 것이라는 가설하에 실제 수업현장에서 고등학교 2학년 남학생을 대상으로 읽기전략훈련을 통해 그 효과를 검증하였다. 이에 따라 읽기자료에 대한 학습에의 인지적 학습전략과 독해이론에서 스키마와 관련된 읽기자료에 대한 학습에의 인지적 학습전략과 독해이론에서 스키마과 관련된 읽기전략과 앤더슨과 로빈슨의 읽기전략에 이론적 바탕을 두고 읽기전 활동, 읽는 과정에서의 활동, 읽은 후의 활동으로 설정하여 훈련집단과 통제집단으로 나누어 실험적용하여 학업성취도에 따른 읽기전략훈련이 이해력의 향상에 어떤 효과를 미치는지 검증하였다. 결과분석을 위한 통계처리는 SPSS를 이용하여 ANOVA, MANOVA, ONEWAY ANOVA의 변량분석으로 검증하였다. 본 연구를 통해서 읽기전략훈련은 학생들의 이해력 향상과 유의미한 효과가 있음이 증명되었다. 읽기전략훈련을 받은 집단의 학생은 훈련을 받지 않은 집단에 비해 의미있는 향상을 보였으며 또한 상위집단이나 하위집단에 비해 중위집단의 증진폭이 크게 나타났다. 전략사용면에 있어서도 실험집단의 학생이 통제집단에 비해서 전략사용능력이 향상되었음을 보여 주었고, 상위집단과 중위집단은 중심내용 파악하기와 요약하기, 질문예측하기에서 점수차가 크게 나타났다. 이러한 본 연구의 결과를 통해 읽기전략훈련에 대한 중요성과 타당성을 찾을 수 있고, 학생들에게 읽기전략훈련을 적응하므로써 학습방법을 스스로 학습하게 하여 이해력을 향상시킬 수 있는 읽기전략지도에 관한 후속연구의 중요성을 시사받을 수 있다. ; The importance of reading skill among other language skills has been demonstrated by a growing body of reading research studies, with the advent of the revitalized schema theory as well as the emergence of cognitive science. In an effort to facilitate students' reading comprehension, language educators have frequently encouraged students to use reading strategy. The aim of this study is mainly to investigate the effects of explicit instruction reading strategy on the development of students' reading comprehension. In a global & general sense, the term reading comprehension is used in this study to refer to the ability that students could comprehend any reading materials. It is clear that reading comprehension is fundamental & essential for students' learning activities. Thus, advance readers might obtain the better learning results than less advance readers. The results of this study may help to define the role of reading strategy training in reading process of language learners. Under the assumption that reading strategy training has an impact on reading comprehension, the experiment was conducted in the real classroom. The experimental procedures for this study were administered separately in groups. The subjects who were solicited for participation in the study were male. As we mentioned before briefly, the theoretical bases for the present study can be found in cognitive psychology. Schema theory, and Anderson & Robinson's reading strategy theory. In order to verify the effects of explicit instruction reading strategy, students participated in three steps of reading during the experiment: Pre-reading, Main-reading, and Post-reading. A. Hypotheses In other to conduct the study, the following hypotheses were made. 1. It was hypothesized that reading strategy training facilitates students' reading comprehension. 2. It was hypothesized that reading strategy training has an effect on students' use & choice of reading strategy. B. Method In order to verify the effects of explicit instruction of reading strategy, pre-test & post-test were applied to both experimental group(51) & control group(50). Especially, the experimental group students were assigned to four reading activities: predicting the contents of the text with the title, comprehending the gist, summarizing, and predicting questions. The length of training was six weeks and the experiment repeated of training was repeated 16 times. C. results This study designed to obtain reading comprehension data by exploring the effects of reading strategy training. Two major facts were found through the investigation. 1. The analysis of group differences on reading comprehension based on the level. Analysis of the data revealed statistically significant difference between groups. Therefore, it was verified that explicit instruction of reading strategy facilities students showed the improvement in this training. Based upon the results of the study, it can be assumed that reading strategy training might have helped greatly the subjects with activiting their schema relevant to the text, thereby facilitating their comprehension of a text. 2. The group differences in the use of reading strategy according to the learner's level of school achievement. The experimental group students who participated in the strategy training achieved higher Comprehension score precisely in post-test rather than pre-test. Each reading of a text included four reading activities: predicting the content of the test with a title, comprehending the gist, summarizing, and predicting questions. It was also found that intermediate students showed the improvement in this training. The results of the present study demonstrarated the effectiveness of explicit instruction of reading strategy by was of title and/or pre-reading question of reading the texts. The rsults of this investigation provide further support to a small body of instructional research in reading comprehension which encourages that student can indeed, through explicit instruction, be taught to acquire & independently apply reading strategies which will enhance reading comprehension. It is hoped that this study will serve as a small stepping stone for future research work adding to the existing knowledge in the field, and that it will serve to stimulate further research in the reading process of Korean students.
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