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한말의 기호흥학회에 관한 일연구

Title
한말의 기호흥학회에 관한 일연구
Other Titles
(The) Study of Ki-Ho academy at the end of dai han empire
Authors
金美梧.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
Keywords
교육구국운동기호흥학회국권상실과정
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
우리나라가 일찌기 敎育을 重視하여 많은 奬勵와 敎育活動이 展開되어 왔음은 周知의 事實이다. 그러나 大韓帝國末期 國權喪失이라는 危機意識속에서 國權恢復을 위한 救國運動의 一環으로 展開된 韓末의 敎育救國運動은 우리나라 敎育史上 劃期的인 意味를 지니고 있는 것이다. 따라서 이 小考에서는 당시 學問振興의 旗幟아래 學會를 組織하여 敎育救國運動의 一翼을 담당했던 畿湖興學會의 創立過程과 敎育活動을 中心으로 하여 韓末 敎育救國運動의 一斷面을 實證的으로 論證하고자 試圖한 것이다. 먼저, 時代的 背景에서는 開港이래 政治·經濟的으로 對韓侵略政策을 推進한 日本이 특히 1900年代에 이르러 露日戰爭의 勝利를 주요 契機로 하여 亡國的인 乙巳條約을 强要하고 本格的인 植民地化 作業을 劃策하는 것이었다. 이같은 사실상의 國權喪失이라는 民族的인 危機에 대응하여 國權恢復運動이 義兵運動과 愛國啓蒙運動의 두 潮流로 활발하게 展開되었는데, 그중 愛國啓蒙運動의 一環으로 展開된 敎育救國運動의 樣相과 그 役割을 살피고, 그것이 韓末 畿湖興學會 成立의 背景을 이루고 있음을 論證하였다. 이와 관련하여 다음으로는 畿湖興學會가 國權恢復을 위한 敎育救國運動을 어떠한 形態로 展開하고, 發展시켜 나갔는가를 考察하고, 그것이 차지하고 있는 歷史的인 位置를 措定하여 보았다. 畿湖興學會의 創立 動機는, 亡國의 原因을 敎育의 不在에서 파악한 畿湖人士들이 이에 대한 自己批判과 아울러 畿湖人으로서의 막중한 責任感을 自認하고 오직 學問을 振興하여 國權恢復과 人權伸張이라는 궁극적인 目的을 效果的으로 達成하려는데 있었으며, 學會의 活動 目的은 京畿道와 忠淸南北道의 興學에 있었지만 당시 憂慮했던 分派性이 强한 地方別 團體의 觀念을 떠나 全國的인 規模의 團體로 發展을 도모하였다. 그리하여 畿湖興學會는 學會의 目的인 興學을 위한 敎育方針으로서 全國民의 居住地域에 따라 千家나 五百家 혹은 二·三百家의 單位로 學校를 設立하고, 財政難에 빠져 있는 全國의 學校를 分擔하여 維持케 하려는 義務敎育과 歷史敎育을 通한 愛國精神을 鼓吹하고, 愛國思想과 獨立精神의 高揚을 위한 精神的敎育을 强調하였다. 이와같은 畿湖興學會는 畿湖地方의 新知識層을 主要 推進勢力으로 하여 高官大爵으로부터 行商賤奴에 이르기까지 網羅되어 있으며, 서울에 그 本部를 두고, 各 地方에 支會를 設置하여 大衆의 力量에 基本을 둔 敎育救國運動을 展開한 것이다. 이때 畿湖興學會가 國權恢復을 위한 學問振興의 方法으로 實行한 敎育活動으로는, 敎師의 不足으로 인하여 어려운 地方敎育의 난관을 打開하고자 敎師資格養成을 위한 畿湖學校의 設立과 學校와 敎師間의 關係를 원활하게 하고자 設置한 敎師紹介所를 통해 地方敎育에 專念하며, 新學問紹介와 興學講究로써 學校다음의 敎育機關이라는 使命을 다하고자 學會의 機關誌인 月報를 發行하고 있다. 이와 같이 활발한 活動을 展開했던 畿湖興學會는 한편, 畿湖人으로서 가졌던 自負心과 責任感에 비해 심한 財政難을 겪게 되고, 그위에 日本의 끊임없는 노골적인 彈壓政策下에서 점차로 體制內的인 敎育運動을 展開함에 따라 大衆을 反日鬪爭에로 組織하지 못한 点, 全國的인 規模의 團體로 發展하기를 標榜하고 있으나 地方主義的인 分裂現象을 극복하지 못한 點등의 限界性을 지니고 있었다. 그러나 學問振興을 통해 國權恢復에 대한 民族的 自覺과 自由平等의 民主主義意識의 鼓吹, 愛國心의 高揚에 注力하였던 것이 後日 反日鬪爭의 바탕을 이루었다는 점에서 볼때 國權恢復을 위해 組織된 畿湖興學會는 韓末의 敎育救國運動上에서 그 歷史的인 位置가 자못 돋보이고 있는 것이다.;It is well-known that our country has taken a serious view of education and made a lot of encouragement and efforts for that since the period of the three states. But the movement toward National Salvation through education at the end of Dai Han Empire that private academies and schools and etc developed, confranting the emergency of the loss of the right of the national independence, as a part of the movement for the revival of national rights in order to depend on education for the existence and wealth and power of our country and to establish our people's subjectivity, seems to have a epochmaking meaning in the history of education of our country. Therefore in this thesis I attempted a positive research work in order to clarify a phase of the movement toward National Salvation through education at the end of Dai Han Empire by contemplating mainly the course of establishment and education activities of Ki-Ho Academy (畿湖興學會) which organized a academy and bore a part of the movement of National Salvation in those days. First, in the background of times, Japan who had propelled complimentary invasion policies contracted Korea-Japan protocol as a first step toward colonial policy against its powerful military force, and further more established supervision government, through which Japan made concrete preparations for colonizing Korea peninsula in each field such as politics, military affairs diplomacy, economy and so on. In response to this urgent situation of the loss of national rights our people made a desperate effort to recover our national rights on the one hand by armed loyal troops and on the other hand by partiotic enlightenment movement but the movement for national salvation like this was suppressed. I examined aspects as follows in this treatise: What was the motive and the objective of establishment of Ki-ho Academy which was set up under the circumstance above mentioned? Was there anything emphasized for the promotion of education? Among education activities for the achievement of the Academy's objectives, which was carried out? And finally what role did that bear later in our history? The motive of the establishment of Ki-ho Academy is that, regarding to the reality of the nation in those days as being due to the shortage of education, those who felt responsibility for this reality as people in Ki-ho district-they were the care of the nation and a kind of model all over the country take the lead in the promotion of education for the revival of national sovereignty, training men of ability and enhancement of of coorporative spirit. Originally it was aimed at the promotion of education in Kyungki and South and North Choong Chung province, but far from the notion of regional unity, it wasn't restricted only to those districts. On the contrary it was attempting to develop into a nationwide organization. What was first asserted as a method for the promotion of education was a compulsory education deviding whole area of residence into 1,000 houses, 500 houses, or 200 to 300 houses, establishing schools and sharing and maintaining perpetually schools all over the world which has difficulties in finance. The second is a mental, education for establishing identification with the spirit of autonomy and achieving the objective of revival of national sovereignty with patriotism and the spirit of self-independence. Education activities performed as a guide for the achievement of objectives like this were as follows: 1. Establishing Ki-ho school for training teachers in order to break the difficulties in regional education attributable to teachers' poverty 2. Setting up employment agencies for teachers to adjust the relation between schools and teachers 3. On the other hand publishing the academy's bulletin with a view to making it bear a role of another education institute in addition to schools through introduction of new learning and research of learning. But this Ki-ho Education promotion Academy experienced the serious financial difficulty, in contrast with the self-confidence and responsibility. Also Japanese blunt and endless suppressive policies had made their activities gradually less positive. Therefore, the movement toward national salvation through education at the end of Dai Han Empire didn't bear a fruit at that time. But despite the experience for the national misfortune of the Japanese Annexation, the spirit of Ki-ho Education promoting Academy had been clung to. So, even under the historically difficult condition after the Japanese Annexation in November, 1910 Yoong-Hi School(隆熙學會) managed by Yoo Gil Joon was combined to Ki-ho school and extended education work. At the same time Seobook, Honam, Gyonam, Kwandong Academy which had propelled association previousely were combined and changed their name to Joong Ang Academy and aimed at development In response to this (change), Ki-ho School was changed its name to Joong Ang school and devoted to the education in spite of the difficult financial problem, so it became a source of scheme of Sam Il movement later. Judging from the fact that it was related and extended to independent movement, the movement toward national salvation through the education at the and of Dai Han Empire did not fame, but became an example of bearing a fruit. From the standpoint of view like this its historical position is quite conspicuous.
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