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韓國魚紋에 관한 硏究

Title
韓國魚紋에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Fish Design
Authors
윤연중.
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
Keywords
한국어문금속공예품용례형식
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
魚紋은 新石器時代 以來로 古代人들에 의하여 施紋되었으며 特히 東아시아 文化圈에서 活潑하게 盛行 되었다. 이러한 魚紋에 對한 자료의 수집과 정리를 通하여 形式變化와 意味의 파악 및 理解가 重要하다는 見地에서 魚紋의 起源을 찾아 보고 또 韓國魚紋과 隣接國家魚紋의 表現形式을 比較하여 韓國魚紋의 特性을 찾아 보려 했다. 韓國의 魚紋은 古新羅時代에 魚佩가 있고, 多樣한 물고기의 土偶가 있으나 계속 이어지는 事例가 없으며, 百濟의 靑銅盞에 雙魚紋이 처음 나타나서 韓國雙魚紋의 始源形式이 되고 있다. 이 雙魚紋은 中國文化의 影響이 强한 것으로 中國의 初期魚紋은 메소포타미아의 農耕文化에 起源을 둔 彩陶의 魚紋에서 비롯되고 있으나 이러한 西域의 魚紋이 韓國의 魚紋과 직접적인 연관은 없다. 三國時代에 中國의 魚紋이 傳來될 때에는 吉祥意味도 함께 傳來되고 있어서 魚가 象徵的인 形態로 남아 있으나 時代가 내려감에 따라 美觀에 치중하여 裝飾性이 높아지고 있으며 高麗時代에는 韓國 獨自的인 魚紋이 登場하기도 한다. 그러나 魚紋이 일상용품에 까지 파급되어 民俗紋樣으로 정착하는 것은 朝鮮時代이다. 朝鮮時代는 國家理念이 儒學에 바탕을 두고 있었으므로 佛敎美術이 쇠퇴하고 있었으나, 魚紋은 民俗紋樣으로 계속 發展된 形態로 施紋되고 있다. 이와같은 魚紋은 金屬工藝品, 木工藝品, 陶磁器, 瓦, 古墳出土品 等에 單魚, 雙魚, 群魚의 形態로 施紋되며 魚의 種類로는 잉어가 가장 많고 또 도미, 붕어, 호어, 雜魚도 있다. 時代에 따른 形式의 變遷을 보면, 1. 三國時代에는 魚가 直身한 形態이며 寫實的인 表現을 하고 있으며 雙魚紋의 경우는 同方位相對形으로 배치되고 있어서 運動感은 전혀 없다. 2. 統一新羅時代의 魚紋은 나타나지 않는다. 3. 高麗時代에는 本格的으로 魚紋이 施紋되고 있어서 여러 가지의 事例가 있는데 特히 雙魚紋이 많다. 雙魚紋의 배치는 頭尾相反하여 屈身한 雙魚가 水波紋과 함께 旋回하는 것이 形式化되고 있으며 相頭한 배치로 律動感있게 꼬리를 올린 形態도 있고, 또 單魚가 屈身하여 蓮池內에 施紋되기도 하는데 모두 運動感이 强하다. 한편 高麗時代에는 宋朝文化의 影響으로 魚紋이 中國形式을 따르고 있으나 瓦와 象嵌靑磁에서는 傳來形式에서 벗어난 韓國獨自的인 形式이 登場하고 있다. 4. 朝鮮時代에는 多樣한 形式의 魚紋이 여러 遺物에 展開되고 있는데 粉靑沙器에서는 變形된 魚가 個性있게 나타나며 靑華白磁에서는 繪畵的인 魚藻紋이 나타나고 木家具裝飾과 木工藝品에서는 直身 또는 屈身한 形式化된 圖案이 나타난다. 以上에서 살펴보면 韓國의 魚紋은 外來文化를 수용하는 단계에서는 傳來魚紋의 形式을 모방하고 있으나 정착하는 단계에서는 韓國的인 美意識으로 消化하여 傳來形式에서 벗어나 獨自的인 圖案으로 變化發展하였으며 이와같이 時代의 變遷에도 불구하고 꾸준히 魚紋이 施紋되고 있는 것은 魚에 對하여 古來로부터 농분다산의 原始信仰的인 吉祥意味가 있는데다가 朝鮮時代에는 魚에 祈福的인 民俗信仰이 있었기 때문에 이러한 俗信의 盛行으로 인하여 더욱 즐겨 施紋되었음을 볼 수 있었다.;Fish Design came to begin since the neolithic eara. Especially it was actively in a prosperous condition in China Cultural zone. Through gathering and arrangement of data about fish design, it was recognized that variation of style and grasping/ understanding of its meaning were considered. In order to search the characterestic of Korean fish design there were studied on 1) the origin of fish design 2) the comparison between expression style of Korean fish design and that of her adjacent countries. In ancient Silla Dynasty, Gold Girdle with fish pendants and fish clay Figures (魚土偶) were appeared variously but continually. Pair fish design was firstly appeared in a bronze cup of packche Dynasty and became an origin of Korean pair fish design. In three Kingdom period, chinese fish design was introduced into Korea. Fish design was remained a symbolic style. As time go by, it laid stress on a fine sight and became to increase decorative level. In Koryo Dynasty, Korean original fish design came to a appear. But in Yi Dynasty, fish design came to extend through the common people's culture and fixed the folklore's design. National ideology of Yi Dynasty was Confucianism and Buddhist art fell into a period of decadence but fish design was continually developed as folklore's design. Such a fish design was shown in metal products, wooden products, stone products and the discoveries of ancient tombs as styles of single fish, pair fish, and various fish. Among fish, golden carp was appeared abundantly more than snapper, crucian carp etc. The transitions of fish design style according to the periods are as follows. 1) In Three Kingdoms Period Fish design assumed a form of straight body and expressed itself in reality. In case of pair fish design, they were arranged as facing style each other and were not in motion. 2) In unified Silla Dynasty Fish design was not appeared. 3) In Koryo Dynasty Fish design was regularly appeared. Especially pair fish design was abundantly appeared and popularly arranged with being contrary to the head and the tail with bending themselves forward and a appeared to do a turning movement. Fish design of Koryo Dynasty was influenced by culture of Song (China) period appeared to persue its style of China but in case of tile (互) and Sanggamchugnja (象嵌靑磁), Korean original style appeared to be introduced getting out of the traditional style. 4) In Yi Dynasty There were various styles in many remains. Especially Boonchung sagi (粉靑沙器) showed markedly transformed fish. Chungwhabaikja (靑華白磁) showed picturesque fish design. There showed a formal design with straighting its body or bending itself forward in wooden furniture ornaments and wooden industrial products. As mentioned above, in the stage of accepting the Chinese Culture Korean fish design imitated that of China, but in the stage of fixation Korean fish design was well digested into Korean beauty sense getting out of the traditional style. Like this, in spite of changing periods, continual development of fish design was due to the meaning of good omen about abundance and productivity. The prosperity of fish design was considered due to vigorous popular belief about fish.
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