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韓國 初, 中等學校 社會科 探究授業 發展에 關한 考察
- 韓國 初, 中等學校 社會科 探究授業 發展에 關한 考察
- Other Titles
- (A) Study on change of inquiry teaching learning methods of social studies in elementary school, and secondary school in korea
- Issue Date
- 교육대학원 사회과교육전공일반사회교육분야
- 사회교과서; 탐구수업; 모형개발
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 本 硏究는 社會科 授業現場에 여러모로 變革을 가져다준 探究授業이 우리나라에 導入된 이래 授業理論으로 어떻게 硏究되고 展開適用되었으며 授業現場의 實態와 效果는 어떠하였는가를 調査하여 앞으로의 社會科授業 運營에 대하여 提言하는 것을 目的으로 한다. 한편 硏究方法으로는 探究授業의 變遷過程을 調査하기 위해 關係文獻의 檢討를 主로 하여 理論과 實際의 展開를 把握하여 보았다.
첫째로 社會科 探究授業理論의 導入 및 展開를 살펴본 바로는 원래 探究授業이란 美國의 죤.듀이의 反省的思考(Reflective thinking)와 1960年代初의 부르너의 敎育의 過程(Process of Education)의 영향밑에서 생겨난 學生中心의 思考過程을 强調하는 敎育의 過程이다. 먼저 1945年 이후 죤.듀이의 敎育思想을 오 천석이 새 敎育運動의 理念으로 敎育現場에 導入시킴과 함께 授業現場에 問題解決學習이 처음으로 소개되었다. 그러나 民主主義理念위에 敎育을 세우려는 새 敎育運動은 積極的으로 추진되었으나 結果的인 實際의 모습은 美國의 모방을 벗어나지 못했다.
6.25 후에도 問題解決學習은 全人的發達을 촉진키 위해 그 重要性은 認定되었으나 成果는 없었다.
1960年代에는 격증하는 知識의 內容을 整理하고 學生들의 올바른 思考를 할 수 있도록 構造性을 가진 學習過程을 展開해야 할 必要에 의해 부르너의 知識의 構造化와 發見學習이 이즈음의 論議의 中心이 되었다. 그러나 이는 實際의 適用이 아닌 단편적인 理論의 소개정도이고 계속 學者들은 敎材의 構造化와 授業模型硏究의 必要性을 促求했다.
1973年 探究型中心의 社會科敎育課程과 敎材內容의 편찬과 더불어 새로운 授業模型인 探究授業의 社會科 授業現場에의 投入이라는 課題에 對하여 좀더 本格的인 硏究가 시도됐었다. 이렇게 1945年以後 우리나라에서 죤.듀이의 反省的思考와 함께 問題解決過程으로 표현되었던 探究授業은 60年代는 問題解決中心의 探究授業으로 70年代에는 學問中心의 探究授業으로 바뀌었다.
둘째, 敎育課程의 改編과 社會科 探究學習理論의 適用을 보면 1945年 敎育課程은 實用主義哲學의 導入의 時期이다.
1955年 敎育課程은 社會科의 새로운 學習指導法을 授業現場에 適用시키기 위한 노력보다는 우리나라에 많은 指導法이 소개되는 수준에 있었다.
1963年의 敎育課程은 問題解決的인 授業이 되도록 指導할 것을 本格的으로 시도했다.
1973年의 敎育課程은 社會科에 있어서 探究能力을 배양하는데 역점을 둔 敎育課程이다.
1981年의 人間中心의 敎育課程에서도 知力增進을 위해 계속 探究授業이 重要視되고 있다.
다음 模型開發에 對하여 살펴본 바로는 1973年 韓國敎育開發院에서는 探究授業 理論에 立脚하여 韓國實情에 맞는 "社會科 探究授業過程模型"을 만들었다. 이 外에도 韓國敎育開發院은 社會科敎材의 상세화연구 및 構造化硏究가 여러번 있었다. 또한 個人的인 硏究로는 康 宇哲의 "歷史探究의 過程과 歷史探究技能의 模型", 吳 英泰의 "授業의 基本構造圖", 金 正洙의 "社會科 敎師敎育模型" 等이 있다.
세째, 探究授業의 實態와 效果를 살펴본 바로는 지금까지 文敎部나 敎育委員會 等 行政機關이 探究授業 및 새로운 授業理論에 관한 많은 책자를 펴낸 바 있다. 그러나 一線敎師와의 유기적인 관계나 協力不足으로 實驗授業이나 보이기 위한 硏究授業 外에는 지금까지의 模型開發에 비하여 一線 授業現場에 探究授業이 適用되는 例는 너무 적다.
이와같이 探究授業에 관한 本格的인 硏究는 1970年代에 이르러서 많은 成果를 가져왔으나 現場의 適用의 경우는 매우 미진하다.
이제 1980年代에 새로운 敎育課程과 함께 앞으로 2000年代의 敎育이 애써 길러야 할 人間特性으로 創意的 知性을 위해 探究授業이 토착화되는 시기를 이루었으면 한다. 그러기 위해서는 探究授業에 對한 行政當局의 積極的 支援과 敎育機關의 實用性있는 模型開發, 좀더 科學的인 實驗硏究와 現場에서의 一般敎師들의 學習指導에 대한 대단한 열의가 要求된다.;The purpose of this study is to explore, on the social studies spot, how Inquiry Teaching and Learning which had many merits theoretically, was researched, developed and applied as a teaching theory since it had introduced to Korea and to advise on management of Social studies teaching by inquiring the actual conditions and effect on the teaching spot.
In method of study, to research the changing process of Inquiry Teaching-Learning, examination of reference literatures was used mainly in grasping the development of theory and reality.
First. From the investigation of introduction and development of Social Studies Inquiry Teaching-Learning theory, it was found that Inquiry Teaching-Learning was produced under the influence of John Dewey's "Reflective Thinking" long time ago and recent Bruner's "Process of Education" in early 1960, which is the process of education, emphasize student-oriented process of thinking.
After 1945, John Dewey' teaching philosophy was introduced to the teaching spot as an ideology of new teaching movement by Oh Chun Suk, when study of problem solving was introduced to the teaching spot for the first time. Although new teaching movement hoped to establish the education on the Democratic Ideolology, but in result, the actual feature couldn't escape only imitation of America's. After the Korean War (Jun. 25. 1950), the study of problem solving didn't have outcomes, too, though the importance to promote the Human development was recognized.
In 1960, from the necessity for study process development which has a structure which is able to arrange contents of increasing knowledge and help students think correctly, Structurizing and Learning for Discovery of knowledge by Bruner were main arguments those days. That was not an application of reality, but only an introduction partially, scholars stimulated the Structurizing of teaching materials and the necessity of Study Model Research Continually.
In 1973, with Inquiry-oriented Social studies educational process and complication of teaching materials contents, more regular research was tried on a subject which was input into the Social Studies teaching spot of the Inquiry teaching-Learning as a new studying model.
In this way, Inquiry Teaching-Learning which was expressed as a problem solving process, with John Dewey's Reflective Thinking in Korea after 1945, was changed as a problem solving-oriented Inquiry Teaching-Learning in 1970's.
Second. Educational process in 1945 was the age of introduction of Pragmatic philosophy in the light of educational process reform and Social studies Inquiry Study theory application.
The educational process in 1955 was only on the level which introduce various methods of guidance to Korea rather than affort to applicat new teaching method of Social studies to teaching spot.
Educational process in 1963 tried intensively to teach to be a problem solving teaching. Educational process in 1973 was that emphasized to cultivate the Inquiry ability in Social Studies.
And also in the human-oriented educational process in 1981, Inquiry Study was emphasized continually for intellect increasing.
Nest, from the aspect of Model Development, he Korean Educational Development Institution with a team leader Chung Sae Ku, on the base of Inquiry Teaching-Learning theory, produced the "Social studies Inquiry Teaching-Learning process Model" which could be adapted to Korean actual conditions, in 1973.
Besides, that institution had tried for the study of detail Social studies teaching materials and Structurizing for many times and as an individual level research, there are; Kang Woo Chul's "Model of the historical Inquiry skills at work;search for the historical facts and search for the meaning." Oh Young Tae's "Basic structure Format of Teaching." Kim Chung Soo's "Social Studies Teacher Education Model," etc.
Third. From the examination of actual conditions and effect of Inquiry Teaching-Learning, the Ministry of Education and the Education Boal'd and so like public administration organization have published many literatures about Inquiry Teaching-Learning and new teaching theory, up to date.
But because of lacking systematic relations and cooperation with the front teachers, there have been rare cases to apply the teaching spot in compare with Model Development up to date except tentative teaching and experimental teaching which were formed to be shown.
And there were not so many opportunities for the front teachers to meet new knowledge and because of scarcity of ground for study therefore the fixation of new teaching model is insufficient. The intensive Study for the Inquiry Teaching-Learning has many outcomes for the first time in 1970's but the case of spot application is not satisfactory.
Now I hope fixation of Inquiry Teaching-Learning for the original Intellect as a characteristics of human beings. which should be forstered by next 2000's Education with 1980's new educational process. To do so, it is needed active supports for the Inquiry Teaching-Learning by the public administrative authorities and Pragmatic madel development by the educational institutions and more scientific experimental studies and great efforts for the teaching guidance of front teachers at the teaching spot.
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