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朴殷植의 敎育思想

Title
朴殷植의 敎育思想
Other Titles
(The) Educational thought of park eun-shick
Authors
吳初子
Issue Date
1976
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
Keywords
박은식교육사상교육학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Park Eun-Shick was a famous Confucian of the orthodox philosophy of Chu Hsi school in Seo Do district, who had lived in a time when the imperialism of the world power prevailed internationa1ly and the fend between the old and the new was being deepened within the country. He studied the books of Western culture and thoughts and widened himself in the view point of the world and domestic affairs. He became a patriotic educational philosopher who compared the real state of his countury with that of foreign countries, criticized the past and faced the present as it was, sought the measure to meet the situation of his country. He joined the Independence Society in 1898 when the movement of the Society was being declined. In the same year he became the co-chief editor of the "Hwang-Seong Times" together with Chang Ji-Yeon, and began the moment of National Salvation by the pen. He became a forerunner who aimed at the enlightenment of people, modernization of his country, and the restoration of the national rights by spreading the new knowledges and new education. The foundation of his educational thought was the Theory of Evolution contained in Yinping ihwen Chih collective works of Yong Ch-in Ch-ah's which influenced the intellectual class of the day in his country deeply. According to this theory of Evolution, he emphasized the necessity of the New Educathion in the urgent sense that education was a motive power of victory in the struggle for existence, and that if one had not had a proper education, one could not win in the struggle for existence. In this point of view, he criticized the conventional, idealistic, impractical, unreal philosophy of Chu Hsi school and he adopted the practical and realistic thought of action of philosoply of Wang Yang Ming school as his educational philosophy. And it was also his educational philosophy to criticize the accumulated corrupt practices and the old way of thinking and to break down and ameliorate them. He aimed at the modern education and tried to expel the selfish educational thought of the past. That is, the aims of his educational thought were to educate all the people with new knowledge, to enlighten them, to expand national power, to do One's duty as a member of a nation by developing education and industry and serving for his people and country, to cultivate, the spirit of independence of achieving perfect independence without any aid of foreign countries. To achieve these aims, he adopted natural science for the foundation of national wealth, social science for the reformation of society, national spirit education for patriotism and reservation of national culture, music and phsical education for the cultivation of emotion, military education for the cultivation of brave nationality, and modern educational program emphasizing the sprit of the world's greatest men. Especially, he considered the day as that of struggle between peoples, and placed stress on the power of cooperation and combination. He laid down experimental method, practice, thorough method of study and education, He devised methods of guiding and helping many schools of Kwan-Soe distict on behalf of the government as well as of spreading the theory of the New Education. To do this, he became the prime mover in organizing "Seo Woo Institution" and "Seo Buk Institution" in 1906 and 1908, respectively. And he became the spiritual leader of both institutions as the Chief-editer of "Seo Woo" and "Seo Buk Institution Monthly" which were bulletins of the said institutions. Though Educational thought and his precise insight into the future were strongly requested and indispensable at that time, he could not realize his ideas fully for lack of spritual, financial, and political support. However, the influence of his thought was very great among people, for he successively held the chief editorship and presidency of such important news-papers as "Hwang Seong Times", "Seo-Woo", Seo-Book Insititution Monthly", "Independence Times" of Shang Hai and he wrote several books, and he led the educational enlightenment movement very positively. More over educational movement was very popular at that time, his modern educational thought could give impetus to many leaders of the New Education al Movement.;朴殷植은 帝國主義侵略과 新舊思想의 갈등이 深化되던 時代에 西道에서 第一가는 正統派 朱子學者로 文名을 날리던 儒學者였다. 그러나 그는 門戶開放 以後 淸과 日本에서 들어온 書籍들을 읽고 西洋文物과 思想을 吸收하면서 意識이 擴大되어, 우리나라 實情과 外國 實情을 比較하게 되었고, 우리의 現在를 直視하면서 過去를 批判하고 그 對應策을 請求하는 愛國啓蒙思想家로 轉換될 수 있었다. 그는 獨立協會의 活動이 막바지에 이르렀던 1898年에 獨立協會에 가담하고, 同年 9月에 張志淵과 함께 皇城新聞의 主筆로 就任하면서 文筆救國을 始作하여, 民智啓發과 社會의 近代化.國權恢復을 目標로 民衆의 先鋒에 서서 新知識과 新敎育을 啓蒙하는 先驅者가 되었다. 이러한 敎育思想의 理念的 土臺가 된 것은 當代 우리나라 知識人들에게 깊은 영향을 주었던 梁啓超의 「飮永室文集」에 있는 進化論이었다. 그는 이 理論에 立脚하여, 敎育을 生存競爭에서 勝利하기 爲한 原動力으로 認識하여, 敎育이 不興하면 生存을 얻지 못한다는 절박감에서 新敎育의 必要性을 力說하였다. 따라서 종래의 觀念的이며 非現實的 非實踐的인 朱子學을 批判라고 陽明學의 實用的, 實踐的, 行動思想을 敎育哲學으로 採擇하여 이를 啓蒙하고, 國家를 쇠약하게 한 累積된 弊習과 舊思想에 대한 全般的인 批判을 加하여 이를 打破하고 改善하는 것을 敎育의 理念으로 삼았던 것이다. 朴殷植은 近代的인 敎育의 目標를 設定하여 過去의 利己主義的 敎育觀을 拂拭시키기에 노력하였다. 즉 敎育의 目的은 全國民을 新知識으로 敎育하여 民智를 啓發하고 社會를 近代化하며 國力을 培養하여 모든 外勢로부터 完全自主獨立하는 데에 있었다. 그는 이 目標를 달성하기 위하여 文明富强의 基礎가 되는 自然科學과 社會改革에 必要한 社會科敎育, 愛國心과 民族文化保存을 위한 國魂敎育, 情緖함양을 爲한 音樂, 體育敎育, 勇敢한 國民性을 培養하기 위한 尙武敎育과 世界偉人의 精神敎育을 强調하는 近代的인 敎科內容을 採擇하였다. 그는 特히 當時代를 民族과 民族이 對決하는 時代로 認識하여 團結과 團體의 힘을 强調하였다. 그는 近代的인 敎科內容을 充實하게 效果的으로 敎育하기 爲하여 實驗과 實習, 拔本塞源的인 硏究態度 및 敎育方法을 主張하였다. 그는 또한 國家를 대신하여 關西地方의 많은 學校들을 指導, 育成할 方策을 마련하게 되어, 1906年에 西友學會, 1908年에 西北學會를 結成하는데 主動人物이 되었고 兩學會의 機關紙인 「西友」와 「西北學會月報」의 主筆이 되어 兩學會를 이끌어 나가는 精神的 支柱가 되었다. 이러한 朴殷植의 敎育思想은 그 時代에 절실히 必要되고 또 未來를 내다 보는 洞察力과 眼目이 있는 思想이였음에도 불구하고, 財政的인 貧困, 新敎育과 新知識을 理解하지 못하는 완고한 사람들의 非協助, 統監府의 新敎育運動에 대한 탄압政策에 의해 理想 모두가 實現될 수 없는 限界性을 내포하고 있었다. 그리나 그가 皇城新聞과 大韓每日申報 西友, 西北學會月報, 上海의 獨立新聞 등 비교적 굵직한 言論機關의 主筆과 社長을 역임하면서 아울러 많은 著書를 出版하여 自身의 敎育思想에 立脚하여 민중을 啓蒙하였던 關係로 大衆 깊숙히 파고 들어가는 커다란 影響力을 가질 수 있었다. 더우기 그 時代가 우리나라 史上 類例 없던 敎育敎國運動이 全國的으로 展開되고 있던 때였던 만큼, 當時의 많은 新敎育運動家들에게 敎育의 理念과 目的, 敎科內容, 敎授方法 등을 提示하는 先導者의 役割을 할 수 있었으며 따라서 그의 敎育思想은 우리나라의 新敎育運動에 功獻한 바 컸다고 하겠다.
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