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朝鮮後期 庶孼疏通運動에 대한 考察

Title
朝鮮後期 庶孼疏通運動에 대한 考察
Other Titles
Study on the Suh-er's Breaking Barrier Movement in 18th~19th Century
Authors
具賢子
Issue Date
1989
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
Keywords
조선후기서얼소통운동신분상승역사교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The Suh-er(庶孼) is a status term which means the Children-and their offspring-between the aristocratic Yangban(兩班) husband and his low class concubines. During the Choson(朝鮮) dynasty, the suh-er (庶孼) not only was combed out from Yangban(兩班) position to be classified as the intermediate class between the nobility and the populace but also was discriminated in law and social life because his maternal line was humble even if he was the highest status class Yangban;s lineage. This article tried out investigation that though the suh-er class was perceived as the intermediate class for legal and social discrimination, his ascension process was not the consequence of national policy but that of breaking barrier movement for himself in the 19th century. With this purpose of study, the status recognition of Suh-er(庶孼) class as an internal dynamic element of breaking barrier movement and in the wake of it, the suh-er(庶孼) intellectual's scholarship trends were observed in chapter two. In chapter three, after the national Suh-er(庶孼) policy transition was observed, the development of group breaking barrier movement and it's influence was observed. There are conclusion from the study stated above. First, as the result of swelling suher(庶孼) population, self-consciousness to the status contradiction and the maturity of scholarship, the nation was forced to modify the Suh-er(庶孼) discrimination law that had been maintained by goverment throughout hundreads of years. Consequently, the nation's Suh-er(庶孼) policy moved toward the relaxation of legal discrimination. Second, the Suh-er(庶孼) intellectuals showed the will to pass the limit of status under the remarkable social economic changes in the late choson (朝鮮)dynasity because they perceived the unreasonableness of social discrimination and devoted themselves to the Silhak (實學) that was a difiant society reform thought against existing Sunglihak(性理學) inclined nomal obligation and ideal. Third, since the late 18th century, the Suh-er's group breaking barrier movement was occurred lively as a status advance movement with the background of consciousness to the status system, Suh-er(庶孼) population expansion, scholarship maturity. Fourth, according to the Suh-er's breaking movement, the numerous Suh-er(庶孼) advanced to the Chonghyungik(淸顯職) with the right to get an official post in politics. And they had no discriminal problem to enter the Thayhak(太學), Hyangkyo(鄕校), Hyangan(鄕案) thanks to the widespread perceive that they were also Yangban(兩班) class in the social life. In addition, the Suh-er(庶孼) succeeded to the lineage and inherited the property following many cases to promoto Suh-er as a chief of family in home. Fifth, the Suh-er(庶孼) breaking barrier movement itself because an opportunity to disintegrate the feudul status order because it was concurred with dismantling process of feudal society in 18-19th century. And the movement played an important role to change the feudal status order of the late choson(朝鮮) dynasty because it influenced to the status advance movement of technical intermediate class man who was perceived as the same class with Suh-er(庶孼).;庶孼이란 士族의 妾子女 뿐만 아니라 그 後孫까지 통털어 일컫던 身分 名稱이다. 朝鮮時代 庶孼은 最上의 身分階級인 兩班의 血統이면서도 母系가 賤하다는 이유로 兩班의 地位에서 도태되어, 中人層으로 굳어져 法制的 社會的으로 심한 差待를 받았다. 本稿는 이러한 法制的 社會的 差待에 의해 中人層으로 인식되던 庶孼階層이 19세기 이후 兩班層으로 上昇되는 과정을 고찰하고자 시도하였다. 그러나 종래의 연구성과와는 달리 制度的인 面보다는 庶孼 自身들의 疏通運動에 주목하여 그 결과로서의 신분상승 과정을 조명해 보고자 노력하였다. 이와 같은 연구 목적을 가지고 Ⅱ장에서는 우선 서얼소통운동의 內的 動因이 되는 서얼계층의 身分認識과 그에 따른 學問的 傾向을 보고자 했다. Ⅲ장에서는 18·19세기 庶孼政策과 庶孼의 官職 進出狀況을 먼저 살핀후, 소얼소통운동의 전개와 그 영향을 살펴 보았다. 以上과 같은 硏究를 통해 다음과 같은 결론을 도출하였다. 첫째, 서얼의 量的 팽창과 신분적 모순에 대한 自覺, 학문적 성숙등은 國家로 하여금 수 백년간 庶孼을 禁錮시켰던 庶孼差待法을 수정하지 않을 수 없게 했다. 따라서 庶孼에 대한 國家의 政策은 法的 差待를 완화시키는 방향으로 추진되었다. 둘째, 조선후기 社會經濟的 變動 속에서 庶孼에 대한 社會的 差待가 부당하다고 인식하게된 庶孼知識人들은 기존의 名分과 觀念에 치우친 性理擧에 비판적이면서 社會改革的 思想인 實學에 몰두함으로써 그들의 身分的 限界를 극복하려는 의지를 보였다. 세째, 18세기 후반부터 활발하게 일어난 庶孼의 集團上疏運動은 그들의 身分的 自覺, 量的 팽창, 학문적 성숙 등이 바탕이 되어 나타난 身分上昇運動이었다. 네째, 庶孼疏通運動의 결과 政治的으로 多數의 庶孼들이 通淸되어 淸顯職에 進出하였다. 社會的으로도 庶孼도 兩班이라는 認識이 유포되어 太學·鄕校·鄕案 등에서 더 이상 差待 문제가 발생되지 않았다 뿐만 아니라 家庭에서도 妾子를 承嫡시키는 사례가 빈발하여 庶子도 家系를 계승하여 財産相續을 받을 수 있다. 다섯째, 서얼소통운동은 서얼 자신이 兩班의 支族이라는 신분상의 한계 때문에, 階級 打破 運動으로까지 발전하지는 못하였으나 봉건적 신분질서 붕괴 과정에서 일정한 역할을 하였다.
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