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韓國天主敎 神學校 敎育의 敎育史的 意義設定試考

Title
韓國天主敎 神學校 敎育의 敎育史的 意義設定試考
Other Titles
(A) Study on establishment of meaning of the education of Catholic Seminaries in the history of education in Korea
Authors
盧明信.
Issue Date
1977
Department/Major
교육대학원 역사교육전공
Keywords
한국천주교신학교교육사
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
It is generally known that the westernized modern education viewed from the history of education in Korea began with Christian institutes or government-established schools immediately after the opening of ports for the first time in the history of Korea. When Western science was introduced to Korea first, it was severely criticized by part of Korean Sirhak (the pragmatic philosophy), but took root in the ground in the suppress of Catholicism, starting with the seminary education for cultivating churchmen in the first half of 19th century. Theological education in Catholicism aims at a certain pu purpose of training churchmen but necessitates to complete cultural subjects for the study of theology. The education of theological school is involved in minor seminary (secondary course) of learning general subjects and major seminary (college course) of learning philosophy, theology and professional science. Theological education in Korea began with the admission of French into this country and had formed its shape by dispatching students overseas and by establishing domestic theological schools. At the beginning, three boys containing Kim, Dae Keon went to Macao for study in 1836, and respectively in 1854 and 1858 three students were sent to International General Seminary of Penang, then 21 students were sent to Penang for study in 1881-1885. The students who were dispatched to Macao and Penang completed a high level of education analogous to that of European countries, and returned back home, becoming forerunners of Western culture and education. In 1837 a short course of theological school was run for a short period of time of 2-3 years, a seminary was established at Juron, Jaecheon in 1855, and a seminary once suspended for some time was resumed at Buheungkol, Won ju in 1885. Upon Catholicism's getting freedom of missionary work for the first time in a century owing to Korean-French Treaty in 1886, a secretly run local seminary moved to Hambyeok-jeong, Yongsan-Seoul, built a 2-storied building of Western style for the first time in the history of Korea, and practised regular level of higher education, which became the predecessors of the present Catholic theological College. Because theological education in Catholocism was formed in suppress period (1784-1886), its scale was small but had a great significance in introducing Western science for the first time in the history of Korea. Theological students could learn latine, Chinese literature, rhetoric, astronomy, music geography, history natural science, and in special could get special knowledge of Schelarticism or processional theology. Besides, they learnt Western culture while living together with Western priests. As mentioned above, theological education in Korea played an important role at the initiation of the modern education and had a great significance not merely in the history of church but of education. With emphasis on the significance, this study intends to inqure into the essence of theological education beging based on the history of education in Korea. The data of study refer to the history of Catholicism in Korea, literature relevant to the history of education, priests' reports and letters in those days, and the method of study is mainly based on the analysis of literatures.;韓國敎育史에 있어서 西洋近代敎育의 出發을 開港 後 基督敎의 團體나 또는 政府에서 設立한 學校들로 시작된다고 보는 것이 一般的인 생각이다. 그러나 西學이 우리나라에 들어 올 때 一部 實學者들에 의해서 論評되어진 西洋敎育은 19世紀 前半에 天主敎 迫害時代에 聖職者 養成을 위해서 實施한 神學校 敎育에서부터 이미 西歐的 敎育 活動은 시작되었던 것이다. 天主敎 神學校 敎育은 聖職者 養成을 위한 特殊한 目的을 가지고 있으나 神學의 硏究를 위한 그 기초로서 一般敎養科目을 이수해야 하는 것이다. 따라서 神學校 敎育은 一般敎科目을 이수해야 하는 것이다. 따라서 神學校 敎育은 一般敎科目을 배우는 小神學校(中等課程)와 哲學, 神學의 專門學術을 배우는 大神學校(大學課程)의 둘을 두고 있다. 우리나라 神學校 敎育은 프랑스 宣敎師가 韓國에 入國 하면서부터 海外派遣과 國內神學校 設立에의 두가지 方法에 의하여 이루어졌다. 1836年에 金大建을 비롯한 3人의 少年들이 마카오로 留學가기 시작하여 1854年과 1858年에 各各 3人의 學生을 페낭(Penang) 國際 共同神學校로 보낸 後 다시 1882年부터 1884年 사이에는 21名의 留學生을 페낭으로 보냈다. 마카오나 페낭으로 派遣된 海外留學生들은 유럽 여러나라 大學 수준의 敎育課程을 수학하고 돌아와 이땅에 西洋文化와 敎育의 先驅者가 되었다. 國內敎育으로는 1837年에 速成神學校育의 2·3年의 運營과 1855年에 堤川 舟論에 神學校를 設立하여 運營된바 있었고 1885年에는 原州 부흥골에서 한때 중지되었던 神學校를 다시 시작하였다. 1886年에는 韓傳條約으로 天主敎도 약 1세기만에 布敎의 自由를 찾게되자 地方에서 비밀리에 實施하던 神學校를 서울 龍山 涵碧亭으로 옮겨 우리나라 最初의 2層 洋屋 校舍를 신축하고 定規規模의 高等敎育을 實施하게되니 이는 現 가톨릭大學 神學部의 前身이 되는것이다. 天主敎 神學 敎育은 迫害時代(1784-1886)에 이루어진 關係로 그 規模는 비록 작으나 最初로 西洋學問을 시작 하였다는데 큰 意義를 갖고 있는 것이다. 神學生들은 라틴어를 비롯해서 漢文, 修辭學, 天文學, 音樂, 地理, 歷史 自然科學에 이르기까지 배울 수가 있었으며 더 나아가 스콜라(Scolar) 哲學을 비롯한 神學의 專門學術을 터득하였던 것이다. 이외에도 西洋 神父들과 함께 生活하면서 勉學하는 동안 그들의 西洋文化를 攝取할 수 있었다. 이와같이 神學校 敎育은 우리나라 近代敎育의 發達에 先驅的이며 中樞的인 役割을 한 것이며 따라서 이것은 敎會史에서 뿐만 아니라 敎育史에서 차지하는 意義는 큰 것이라고 본다. 本 論文은 바로 이러한데에 重點을 두고 神學校 敎育의 韓國敎育史的 意義를 考究하고자 하는 것이다. 硏究의 資料는 天主敎會史와 敎育史 關係文獻 그리고 당시 神父들의 報告書, 書翰등이고 硏究方法으로는 主로 文獻分析的 方法에 의하였다.
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