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西間島 獨立軍基地 建設運動에 관한 硏究

Title
西間島 獨立軍基地 建設運動에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON THE CONSTRUCTION MOVEMENT OF INDEPENDENCE MILITARY BASE IN "SEOKANDO"
Authors
高泳辰
Issue Date
1990
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
Keywords
서간도독립군기지건설운동
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
This manuscript has its objective in aiming at the study on the feature and historical character of independence military. base in "Seokando" through paying attention on the fact that the "Doctrine of Independence War" emerged as the new combat maneuver for the movement of restoring national sove-reignty led them to constract an independence movement base in "Seokando" under the initiative by "Shinminhoe(the New Democratic Society)" and that it enabled a full-scale independence campaign to be possible in the northeastern region of China throughout the period of the 1920th and the 1930th through the training course of the independence army there. A series of examination were made on the facts described in this particular manuscript as follows: Firstly, the background that the "Doctrine of Independence War" raised following as being robbed of the national sovereignty before or after the 1910S as the background of the times and the emigration circumstances of Korean people, the emigration plan of Korean people by "Shinminhoe" and its propulsive situation. Secondly, a number of national campaigners headed by the members of "shinminhoe" took the initiative of Korean society of "Seokando" and endeavored to organize the Korean society as well as establishing the independence campaign base. Thirdly, several groups including "Kyunghaksa (Study-Cultivation Institute)" and "Pumindan (Support-People Group)", etc. enabled the process to construct "Seokando" as the base of anti-Japanese independence movement through organizing the Korean societies. Fourthly, it was revealed that the "Shinheung Military Academy" was the training institution of the "Independence Army" which enabled the emergence of the armed groups for resisting Japanese and the full-scale independence war to be on active phase through the actual state of education enforced in the military academy and the activities of its graduates there. In conclusion, the following findings were able to be induced through the study on this manuscript: Firstly, the fact that the base for independence movement in Seokando was-constructed by the affiliates of radical faction within the "Shinminhoe" is able to be understood to occupy an extremely great position in the history of anti-Japanese independence movement by putting the "Doctrine of Independence War" advocating that only to expel the power of Japanese imperialism would lead to obtain complete independence with backing down on the "Doctrine for placing the first priority on the cultivation of real power" as an ultimate campaign of restoring the national sovereignty. Secondly, as the "Kyunghaksa (Study-Cultivation Institute)" was being expanded and reorganized into "Pumindan (Support-People Group)", it was grown to be as a powerful organ of anti-Japanese independence movement comprehending the entire district of Seokando. During the period, it was interpreted as the fact that these groups played an initiative role in solidifying the Korean society as a base for anti-Japanese independence movement ranging over the entire district of Seokando by enforcing the emigration and settlement of Korean people, the economic improvement, the encouragement of national awareness for resisting Japanese and the national education for being well up in both literary and military arts of youth. Thirdly, the "Shinheung Training Institute" and its developed "Shinheung School" as well as "Shinheung Military Academy" fostered a great number of independence armies and the nationalistic campaigners to materialize the "Doctrine of Independence War", and in addition, as the "Party of Shin-heung alumni" characterized as a cabal for anti-Japanese revolution was organized, they contributed greatly themselves to the improvement of Korean autonomy and anti-Japanese independence. Judging from the fact that they acted as the heavy responsible positions in the anti-Japanese factions including Korean ethnos, military government and the governmental departments assigned to "Sairo Army", the Shinheung Military Academy was revealed to be the most effective military educational organization in spurring the independence movement. In particular, the construction of the independence movement base in Seokando developed anti-Japanese war on the foundation of such a Korean society through having organized a great number of anti-Japanese organizations. In the meantime, reviewing the latent energy that the Korean people, themselves, were able to develop the independence war by conquering insurmountable economic barrier, it may as well be concluded that the self-esteem and dignity of the nation were manifested together with the fact that the Korean independence movement would possess the significance of expanding and developing outside the country as to be able to construct a modern nation through realizing its sovereign independence in this particular regard.;本稿는 1910年 前後 國權恢復運動의 새로운 투쟁방락으로 대두된 "獨立戰爭論"이 新民會의 主導下에 西間島에 獨立軍基地를 建設하였다는 점과 아울러 여기에서 獨立軍 養成過程을 통하여 1920·30年代 中國 東北地域에서 본격적인 獨立戰爭을 可能케 하였던 점에 주목하여 西間島 獨立軍基地의 特徵 및 歷史的 位置를 부각시키는데 그 目的이 있다. 本稿에서는 첫째, 時代的 背景으로서 1910年 前後 國權被奪 이후 "獨立戰爭論"이 대두하게 된 배경과 韓人의 移住狀況, 그리고 新民會에 의한 韓人移住計劃과 그 推進狀況을 考察하였다. 둘째, 新民會 會員을 비롯한 많은 民族運動家들이 西間島 韓人社會를 主導하여 韓人社會의 形成과 獨立軍基地設定을 위하여 노력한 점을 살펴보았다. 세째, 耕學社·扶民國·韓族會등 한인단체가 韓人社會를 組織化하면서 西間島를 抗日獨立軍基地로 기반을 構築하는 過程을 밝혀보았다. 네째, 新興武官學校의 敎育實態와 卒業生들의 活動을 통해서 抗日武裝團體의 出現과 本格的인 獨立戰爭을 가능케 하였던 獨立軍의 양성기관임을 밝혀보았다. 結論的으로 本槁의 연구를 통해서 다음과 같은 結論을 도출할 수 있었다. 첫째, 新民會內의 急進派系列에 의해서 西間島에 獨立運動基地를 建設하였던 것은 궁극적인 國權條復運動으로 "先實力 養成論"을 철회하고 日帝勢力을 驅逐하는 것만이 完全한 獨立이라는 "獨立戰爭論"을 실천하였던 것에 抗日獨立運動史上에 있어서 매우 큰 位置를 차지하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 둘째, 耕學社는 扶民團·韓族會로 확대 재편되면서 西間島 모든 지역을 망라한 강력한 抗日獨立運動團體로 성장하였고, 그 동안 이 단체들은 韓人의 移住와 定着, 經濟向上, 抗日民族意識 鼓吹, 靑少年의 文武雙全의 民族敎育을 실시함으로서 西間島 全域에 걸치는 韓人社會를 抗日獨立軍基地로 닦아가는데 先導的인 役活을 하였다고 보겠다. 세째, 新興講習所와 그를 발전시킨 新興學校, 新興武官學校에서는 "獨立戰爭論"을 具現할 많은 獨立軍과 民族運動家를 양성하였으며, 아울러 抗日革命結社團體인 新興學友團이 조직되어 韓人의 自治向上과 抗日獨立運動에 크게 공헌하였고, 이들은 후에 韓族會·軍政府·西路軍政署등의 抗日團體에서 중핵으로 활동하였던 점으로 볼 때, 新興武官學校는 獨立運動을 전개하는데 있어 가장 效果的인 軍事敎育機關이였음을 알 수 있었다. 특히, 西間島 獨立軍基地 建設은 이와 같은 韓人社會를 기반으로 하여 수많은 抗日團體가 조직되어 抗日戰爭을 전개하는 한편, 韓人自身이 스스로 經濟的 難關을 극복해가면서 獨立戰爭을 전개할 수 있었다는 저력을 놓고 볼 때, 韓國獨立運動이 國外로의 擴大·發展의 의미를 지니며, 아울러 自主獨立을 이루어 近代的인 民族國家를 建設할 수 있다는 民族의 自尊과 矜持가 表出된 것으로 그 歷史的 位相이 돋보인다고 하겠다.
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