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學習不振兒를 위한 成就動機育成硏究

Title
學習不振兒를 위한 成就動機育成硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on Achievement motive for Slow-Learners
Authors
李恩淑
Issue Date
1975
Department/Major
교육대학원 초등교육전공
Keywords
학습부진아성취동기초등교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
A. 問題 本 硏究의 目的은 國民學校 上級學年 學習不振兒의 成就動機育成 可能性을 檢證하는 同時에 成就動機育成이 學業成就度와 情緖的 適應에 미치는 效果를 알아 보고자 하는 것이다. 本 硏究에서 밝히고자 하는 問題는 다음과 같다. 1. 學習不振兒의 成就動機育成이 可能한가? 2. 成就動機育成만으로 學習不振兒의 學業成績이 향상되는가? 3. 成就動機育成過程을 통해서 學習不振兒의 自我槪念 및 情緖的 適應에 變化向上이 있는가? B. 假說 가설 1. 學習不振兒의 成就動機育成이 可能하다. 가설 2. 學習不振兒의 成就動機가 育成되면 學校成績이 向上된다. 가설 3. 學習不振兒의 成就動機가 育成되면 自我槪念과 情緖的 적응면에서도 向上이 있다. C. 方法 1. 對象 實驗 對象은 서울 D국민학교 6학년 남자 3개반에서 학교성적이 각반에서 최하위인 학생 12명(15%)을 선정하고, 그 中에서 知能이 낮아 學校學習을 정상적으로 수행할 수 없다고 판정되는 아동을 10명씩(12%)을 선정하였다. 선정된 아동들의 平均 IQ는 92였고 선정기준으로 삼은 4월말 학교 성적의 평균점은 64점이었다. 2. 실험자료 성취동기 육성 프로그램 McClelland가 動機學習을 위해 발전시킨 12개의 理論的 命題中에서 國民學校 學習不振兒의 成就動機를 높여서 學習에서의 成就意慾은 물론 成就指向的인 言行을 할 수 있도록 合當한 5개의 命題를 근거로 한 프로그램이다. 명제(1) 自己가 하나의 動機를 育成할 수 있다는 可能性을 인식할때 成功할 可望이 높다. 명제(2) 自己가 育成하려는 動機가 현실의 요구와 일치한다는 것을 인식할때 성공할 수 있다. 명제(3) 새로 育成된 動機가 실제 生活에서 連結될때 思考와 行動에 더 영향을 준다. 명제(4) 育成된 動機가 自我영상의 向上으로 知覺되고 경험될때 장래의 思考와 行動에 영향을 준다. 명제(5) 育成된 動機와 관련된 目標를 세워서 달성하려고 努力할때 더 思考와 行動에 영향을 준다. 프로그램 目標 (1) 自信感과 높은 學習意慾(知的成就意慾)을 기른다. (2) 肯定的인 自我槪念을 갖게 한다. (3) 成就指向的인 言行을 익힌다. 프로그램 過程 과정(1) 人間行動을 기를 수 있는가? 과정(2) 成就動機란 무엇인가? 과정(3) 成就動機가 높은 사람의 行動은 무엇인가? 과정(4) 나는 어떤 사람인가? 과정(5) 장래 學習計劃作成 道具 (1) 知能檢査 : 정범모저 一般知能檢査 知能이 낮은 아동을 선정하기 위해 사용하었다. (2) 想像力檢査 : 한국 행동 과학 연구소에서 제작한 것으로 성취동기 육성를 측정하기 위하여 사용하였다. (3)학습기능검사(독서기능, 수량기능) : 학국행동과학연구소에서 제작한 것으로 독서기능과 수량기능의 변화 향상을 알아 보는데 사용하였다. (4) 자아개념검사 : 본 연구를 위해 제작된 것으로 가기 자신을 어떻게 보고 있는가를 알아 보는데 사용했다. (5) 표준적응검사 : 김호권저(코리안 테스팅 센타 발행)로 아동들이 가지고있는 문제의 변화향상을 알아 보는데 사용하였다. 以上의 검사중에서 지능검사를 제외한 4개 검사는 事前 事後로 나누어 2번 실시하였다. 3. 實驗節次 프로그램 實施는 1974년5月 15日부터 6月 15日까지 총 20시간에 걸쳐 실시되었다. 실험반 學生들은 학교 정상 수업을 받고 방과 후 1시간씩 특별교실에서 성취동기 육성과정을 이수하였다. 환등기 및 녹음자료등을 함께 사용 하였다. 결과 처리에 있어서는 事前 事後검사를 실시하여 평균치의 차의의 의도를 t검증을하고 학교학업성적의 향상은 실험반 아동들의 4월말부터 7월말고사의 월별평균을 학년전체의 학년평균에 대한 백분율도 처리하였다. 프로그램을 마치면서 질문지의 반응처리도 백분율로 처리하였고 부수적인 결과는 주관적인 처리를 하였다. D. 結果 McClelland가 動機學習을 위해 발전시킨 理論的 命題에 따라 구안한 성취동기육성과정으로 國民學校 上級學年 학습부진아의 성취동기육성이 可能했다. 성취동기 育成으로 學習不振兒의 學校 學業成績과 기초적인 學習技能(독서기능과 수량기능)의 向上을 가져왔다. 또 성취동기의 육성으로 學習不振兒의 否定的인 自我槪念은 은 보다 肯定的인 방향으로 변화 향상되었다. 그리고 정서적으로 부적응 상태에 있던 學習不振兒들은 문제가 정상적인 水準으로 줄어 들었다. 학습부진아들은 성취동기 프로그램을 통해서 자신감 얻게 되었고 여러 학습 활동에서 도움을 받았다고 知覺하고 있다. 또 바람직한 향상을 보았다고 知覺하고 있으며, 교사들의 관찰결과도 학습부진아들이 학습에 必要한 여러 行動들이 바람직한 방향으로 변화 向上했다는 것이다.;A. Problems This study aimed to verify the possibility of cultivating the achievement motive with slow-learners in the senior grade of elementary school and to clarify the effect of achievement motive's cultivation affection school work achievement and emotional adaptation. The problems investigated in this study were as follows : 1. Is it possible for us to cultivate the achievement motive of slow learners? 2. Will the school record of slow-learners be improved only by cultivating achievement motive? 3. Will the cultivation process of achievement motive change or improve the ego concept and emotional adaptation of slow-learners? B. Hypothesis 1. It is possible for us to cultivate the achievement motive of slow learners, 2. If the achievement motive of slow-learners is cultivated, their school records will be improved. 3. If the achievement motive of slow-learners is cultiveted, their ego concept and emotional adaptation will be improved. C. Method 1. Subjects As experimental subjects, 12 boys(15%) of the lowest school record in each of three boy-classes of the sixth grade of the D Elementary school in seoul, Korea, were selected. From among those 12 boys, 10 boys(12%) who are judged not to be able to normally carry out class works because of their low intelligence, were again selected. The average of IQ of the selected boys was 92 and their average school record as of April 1974, was 64 points. 2. Experimental Material (a) Idea of Program for Cultivating Achievement Motive McClelland has arranged 12 theoretical propositions for motive learning, and from among them, five propositions suitable for improving achievement motive of slow-learners in elementary school were selected so that they may desire achievement in their learning with words and deeds. This program was arranged based upon the following five propositions : Proposition 1. When one recognizes that one can cultivate one of one's motive, one's hope for suceess will be high. Proposition 2. When one recognizes that one's desiring motive to be cultivated, fits realistic demand, it will be successful. Proposition 3. When one's newly cultivated motive is linked with practical life, it will affect one's thinking and behavior more. Proposition 4. When one's cultivated motive is recognized and experienced in one's ego image, it will affect one's thinking and behavior in the future. Proposition 5. When one makes effort in order to achieve the target related with one's cultivated motive, it will affect one's thinking and behavior more. (b) Target of Program (1) To cultivate self-confidence and high desire for learning(intellectual achievement desire). (2) To have affirmative ego concept. (3) To learn to speak and behave for achievement (c) Process of Program Process 1. Is it possible for human being to cultivate his behavior? Process 2. What is achievement motive? Process 3. What is the bahavior of a man having strong achievement motive? Process 4. What am I? Process 5. What is my learning program in the future? (d) Instruments (1) Intelligence Test In order to select boys of low intelligence, intelligence test was carried out in accordance with the principles in the General Intelligence Test by Bum Mo Chung. (2) Test of Imagination Ability In order to measure the dultivation degree of achievement motive, the principles of the book on Raising Achievement Motive by the Korean Institute for Behavioral Science, were adopted. (3) Test of Learning Function(Reading and Quantity Function). In order to measure reading and quantity functions, principles on the book on Reading Function and Quna-tity Function by the Korean Institute for Behavioral Science, were adopted. (4) Test of Ego Concept This testing method was arranged specially for this study and used to measure how one think onesslf. (5) Test of Adoptation In order to measure adoptation, the Standard Adaptation by Ho Kwon Kim(published by Korean Testing Center) was used. Out of the above five tests, four tests except intelligence test, were carried out twice before and after completing the program. 3. Experimental Procedure This program was carried out for 20 hours from May 15, 1974 to June 15, 1974. The subjects were trained with this program in the special class-room for one hour per day after finishing regular school class works. Slide projector and tape recorder were utilized. In the course of treating the results of the survey, various tests were carried out before and after conducting the program and the significance grade of the difference between the average values of the tests was verified by T-Method. The improvement of their school record was treated by the percentage of the average of the school records from April to July to the average of the total year school record. Completing the program, the reaction of the questionarie was also treated by percentage. Auxiliary results were subjectively treated. D. Results It was possible for us to cultivate the achievement motive of slow learners in the senior grade of elementary school by carrying out the training program arranged from McClelland's theoretical propositions for motive training. It made the slow-learners improve their school records and learning function(reading function and quantity function). Their ego concept changed from negative to positive. They became emotionally adaptable through the program training. They also became confident with themselves, recognizing that they made desirable improvement in their learning activities. Their school teachers observed that they made considerable progress in their school works.
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