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朝鮮後期의 天主敎 女性活動과 女性觀의 發展

Title
朝鮮後期의 天主敎 女性活動과 女性觀의 發展
Other Titles
WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS OF CATHOLIC AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR VIEW IN THE LATER PART OF THE CHOSUN
Authors
安和淑
Issue Date
1979
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
Keywords
조선후기천주교여성활동여성관
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
朝鮮後期 儒敎가 多元化된 社會的인 諸問題를 解消시키는데 아무런 寄與를 하지 못하자, 17世紀 儒學者들 사이에 實學運動이 일어나게 되었고 얼마 안 있어 燕京使節로부터는 漢譯西學書가 流入됨에 따라 天主敎思想이 傳來되었다. 처음 天主敎는 儒學者들 사이에 學問的인 好奇心에서 硏究되다가 점차 朝鮮의 傳統秩序에 대한 威脅으로 意識되어 安鼎福을 비롯한 儒學者들에 의하여 批判이 일어나게 되었다. 漢譯西學書 中 가장 많이 읽혀졌던 「天主實義」와 「七克」에 나타난 男女觀과 守貞思想도 빼놓을 수 없는 批判의 대상이었다. 이러한 天主敎思想은 正租朝부터 南人 儒學者들 사이에 信仰으로 받아들여져 傳播되자 朝廷에서는 彈壓을 가하기 시작하였다. 그래도 天主敎ㅇ는 계속 번져 처음 兩班婦女 사이에 傳來되더니 점차 各階層의 女性들도 믿기 시작하였다. 이들 女信徒들 가운데 姜完淑은 信仰生活의 自由를 위하여 兩班婦女임에도 불구하고 家出하였고 尹占惠를 비롯한 여러 처녀들도 結婚을 거부하고 守貞을 지키기 시작하였다. 이는 家父長權과 女必從夫 後嗣重視思想에 挑戰을 意味하는 것이었다. 특히 兩班家門의 閨秀였던 李順伊는 주위의 非難으로 守貞을 지키기가 어렵다고 생각되자, 當時 朝鮮 宣敎師로 와있던 中國入 周文謨 神父와 의논하여 지체가 사뭇 떨어지지만 童貞을 지키려는 한 靑年과 守貞을 지키기로 約束하고 結婚하였다. 이는 當時 행해지던 階級的 內婚制와 後嗣重視思想을 거부하는 것이었다. 1801年 正組가 죽고 나이 어린 純組가 卽位하자, 攝政을 하게 된 貞純王后 金氏는 南人時派를 몰아내기 위해 辛酉追害를 일으켜 天主敎徒들을 虐殺 또는 流配하였다. 이로써 天主敎는 많은 打擊을 받았지만 申太甫, 權요안, 丁夏祥, 趙淑 等에 의하여 天主敎 再建運動이 일어나고 특히 劉進吉과 丁夏祥은 神父迎入에 努力한 결과 1837年에는 불란서 宣敎師가 셋이나 들어오게 되었다. 天主敎가 다시 活氣를 띄고 1만 여명의 信者를 갖게 되었을 때 孝明世子가 죽고 얼마 후 純祖 마저 세상을 떠나자, 나이 어린 憲宗이 卽位하게 되었다. 이를 기회로 憲宗의 外祖父었던 趙萬永은 당시 努道家였던 安東金氏 努力을 除去하기 위하여 天主敎를 彈壓하니 天主敎는 또 다시 黨爭에 휘말려 己亥追害를 받게 되었다. 이에 范(Imbert)主敎를 비롯하여 두 불란서 神父가 수많은 男子信徒와 함께 犧牲되기에 이르렀다. 당시 殉敎한 女信徒들의 수는 辛西迫害 때보다 훨씬 많은 수 였으며, 女信徒들이 刑官 앞에 끌려가 推問을 당한 內容을 보면 그녀들의 대답이 敎理에 대해 論理的이면서도 大擔 솔직하였다. 또 이들 중에는 자유로운 信仰生活을 위하여 寡婦나 童貞女를 막론하고 家出하는 女性이 많아졌으며 그들끼리 共同生活을 하므로써 그들의 信念을 키워 나가기도 하였다. 家父長的인 家庭觀念으로 인하여 三從之義라는 허울 속에서 나면서부터 죽을 때까지 無意味하게 살아가야 했던 女性들에게 있어서 天主敎思想은 劃期的인 것이 아닐 수 없었다. 男尊女卑思懇이나 家父長的인 思想에 대해서는 男女平等을, 現世의 桎梏에 대해서는 來世觀으로 希望과 용기를 가졌던 女性들은 寡婦나 童貞女들은 물론 어린 子息을 가진 有夫녀들까지도 刑官으로부터 背敎의 誘態을 물리치고 殉敎하였다. 周文謨 神父나 第2代 朝鮮敎區長이었던 范(Imbert)主敎가 儒敎社會에서 天主敎理를 펴나가는데 온건한 방법을 쓴데 비하여 第4代 敎區長이었던 張(Berneux)主敎는 계속되는 天主敎 彈壓에도 불구하고 보다 과감하게 天主敎理를 펴나갔다. 1857년 信者들을 위하여 쓴 「張主敎輪示諸友書」에는 結婚하는데 있어서 당사자의 意見이 充分히 考慮돼야 한다고 하여 家庭안에서의 家父長權의 橫暴를 막았으며 寡婦의 再嫁를 누구도 막지못한다고 하여 寡婦再嫁의 완전한 자유를 許諾하였다. 이는 東學이나 甲午更張의 寡婦의 再嫁 許容보다 37年이나 앞선 것이었다. 天主교는 結婚의 近代的인 意味를 賦與하고 寡婦의 再嫁를 許容한 뒤 第7代 白(B1anc)主敎에 의하여 불란서에 本部를 둔 聖바오로修女會가 1888年 7月 朝鮮에 招致되어 朝鮮 처녀들을 받아들임으로서 童貞女에 대해서도 制度的인 뒷받침을 해주었다. 이제 女性들도 女必從夫라는 觀念에서 벗어나 그 나름대로의 信念에 의하여 獨自的인 길을 걷는데 封建社會의 抑壓으로부터 保護를 받게 된 것이다. 이렇게 天主교는 儒敎社會의 制度 밑에서 抑壓당하고 있는 女性들에게 天主敎思想을 傳播시켜 一個 村婦들까지도 政府나 男性에게 대항하여 자기의 信念을 펴나가는데 많은 피를 흘리므로서 東學思想에 영향을 주었으며 開化期 女性이나 改新敎 女性들이 活動하는데 思想的 社會的으로 길을 열어 주었다. 그리고 天主敎는 韓國女性 近代化에 어떤 宗敎, 朝廷의 어떤 施策보다도 앞장서서 그들을 擁護하였다.;As in later part of the chosun are the confucianism could not dissolve its social complications, puluralized, from the seventeenth century realism movements among the confucianists arose, and not being later the Western literature books translated into Chinese being transmitted by "Yeongkyung" Mission, the ideas of catholicism were travelled. At the first catholicism had been studied among the confucianists out of curiosity but fradually this catholicism became grown as threathening the traditional orders in the Chosun and eventurely among the confucianists, such as Ahn, Seung Bok and other confucianists started criticizing it. The view of the sexed and the ideas of retaining one's virtue shown on the Real Definition of the cathoricism and seven Sloicisms were the inevitable objects against their crities, and when such catholic ideas, received as a religious belief by and between the confucianists in Nam-In faction were being spreaded widely over, the court started suppressing the catholicism. However, at the beginning the catholicism being continued to spread over to the women of the noble families (so called "Yang-Ban"), and gradually woman in the various classes start believing in the catholicism. Among them, the women's believers, Kang, Wan Sook absconded herself out of her family for her own freedom of the religious life, and many virgins, such as Yoon, Jeom Hoe and many other maidens derried their marriage and they began retaining their virtue. This meant a challange to the ideas of palriarchship and "A woman ought to be dbedient to be husband". Especially since Lee, Soon Eh, the unmarried woman of the noble family birth seemed very difficult to retain her virgin, she married a young man who other under a disussion with father Joo, Moon Mo, although she became humler. This meant denying the marrige system between the equal social classes, prevailed at that time, and the ideas of importance of the family successor. As the King-Sunjo abscended the throne after the King-Sunjo died in 1801, Kim Ssi, the Queen-Jeongsoon sho bacame regent made "SINYU TORMENT" in order to drive out the lines of "Namist faction" and massacred of banished the catholic of the catholicism was arisen by Shin, Tae Bo, Kwon, Yo An, Jeong, Ha-Sang, Cho, Sook and the catholic priests and in 1837 therr (3) Franch evangelists were to come and again the catholicism was in revival. When the catholicism had approximately 14,000 persons of the catholic the King-Sunjo also died, not longer after the prince-Hyomyung died, and the King-Heonjong, aged younger, ascended the throne. Taking this as a great opportunity, Cho, Man-Young, the maternal grand father of the King-Heonjong suppressed the catholicism to remove the power of the An-Dong Kims that were at that time the family in power. And again the catholicism gaction's strife. Eventually, the Bishop-Imbert, ficed. At that time the number of died woman catholic were sacreficed. At that time the number of died woman catholic was greater than that at the time of "Sin Yu Suppression". Viewing the contents of the women catholic's reply before religious doctrine and very frank. And among them no matter they were widous or maidens, many became abscended out of their families, and they grew their faith by leading common lives. Really the catholicism was a great epoch to the women who should have led their lives menless untill death since birth owing to the patriarchal family life. Against the ideas of "A woman ought to be obedient to her husband" and "Patriarchship", the woman catholic, widows, male and virgins and even married women, having and encouragement in future for the equality of the sexes, died a martyr for their faith, overcoming temptations to reject the religion by the punishing-execution officer. Father Ju, Mun-Mo of the Bishop-Imbert, the 2nd Head Parish used moderate means in spreading the catholicism into the confucian society, while the Bishop-Berneux, the 4th Head Parish was so bold in spreading the catholic doctrine despite of suppressin of the catholicism by the Court. The Bishop Berneux prevented the violence of the patriarchship in a family at that time by his suggestion that in marrige sufficient opinions of the concerned persons should have been taker into a consideration, written by him on his Publication "Jang Bishop Yun Si-Je Woo Seo" and further a complete freedom in remarriage of the widouws was permitted saying that no one can stop doing their remarriage, This was done 37 years earlier than the accomplishment through "Dong Hak Movement" and "Ka Poh Political Reform" in 1894. After the catholicism travelled a modern meaning in marriage of the widows, Saint Paul Nunnery, harving its Head quarters in France was entered in 1888 by the Bishop-Blance, and as such Virgins were received into the Chosun a systematical support for the male and female virgins was provided. Thus, the woman were to be protected from the pressure by feudalic society, to lead their own way by their own faith, being released from the ideas "A woman ought to be obedient to her husband." Like such, the catholicism opened ways pressed down under the systems in the confucian society with its great blooded devotion for the woman the both of common and catholic woman to act socially of ideologically in the period of Therfore, the catholicism suported them preceding any other religion and policy of the court modernizing the Korean women.
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