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피아노 운지법 교수 방안

Title
피아노 운지법 교수 방안
Other Titles
(A) study on the Fingering
Authors
우승연
Issue Date
2003
Department/Major
실용음악대학원 피아노교수학전공
Keywords
피아노운지법교수 방안fingering
Publisher
이화여자대학교 실용음악대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
모든 피아노 연주자에게 있어서 음악적 표현을 위하여 탁월한 기교의 획득은 필수적 요소라 할 수 있다. 효과적인 운지법은 손의 자유로운 움직임을 가능하게 하여 숙련된 테크닉을 구사할 수 있도록 하며, 이를 통해 보다 원활한 연주를 이끌어 낼 수 있도록 한다. 그러므로 연주자에게 있어서 손가락 동작의 원리를 이해하고, 연주에 효율적으로 활용할 수 있는 운지법의 학습이 반드시 필요하다. 본 논문은 피아노 연주를 하는데 있어서 테크닉의 근본을 이루는 운지법의 지도 방안에 대한 연구이다. 본문에서는 자필 악보에 운지법이 표기 되지 않은 Sergei Prokofiev의 「어린이를 위하여(Music for Children), Op. 65」를 중심으로 운지법을 살펴보았다. 이 곡은 중급 수준에서 다룰 수 있는 다양한 테크닉을 포함하고 있으며, 어린이의 정서에 적합한 음악적 내용을 가진다. 또한 이 곡은 소나타에 비하여 규모는 작지만 각 곡마다 고유한 성격을 섬세하게 드러내어 그의 운지법 특징을 알 수 있다. 연구내용을 살펴보면, Ⅱ장에서는 운지법의 신체적 수단이 되는 각 손가락의 생리학적인 특징과 기능에 대하여 알아보았다. Ⅲ장에서는 다양한 연주 테크닉에 따른 운지법을 연구하여 피아노 운지법 해석에 도움을 얻고자 하였다. 이러한 연구에 근거하여 Ⅳ장에서는 프로코피에프 운지법의 전반적인 특징을 그의 피아노 소나타 작품을 통하여 고찰하였다. 마지막으로 Ⅴ장에서는 「어린이를 위하여」 의 효과적인 운지법을 어린이의 손의 크기를 고려하여 제시하였다. 20세기의 피아노 음악은 연주자에 따라 자유롭고 유연한 손동작을 위하여 운지법을 명시하지 않으므로 연주자는 자신의 신체적 조건에 따라 형식에 얽매이지 않는 합리적인 운지법을 개발할 수 있다. 이처럼 운지법은 절대적인 원칙이 존재하는 것이 아니므로 연주자의 신체 생리학적인 특성과 음악적 해석의 시각차에 따라 다양한 방식으로 적용이 가능하다. 따라서, 교사는 운지법 지도에 있어서 학생이 편안하게 느끼는 손의 위치에 따라 창의적인 운지법을 발굴하여 융통적으로 적용할 수 있도록 해야 하며, 다양한 악곡에서 학생 스스로 운지법을 선택할 수 있도록 방향 제시를 할 수 있어야 하겠다.;Teaching method for the piano fingering is investigated with focus on Prokofiev 「Music for Children, Op. 65」in this study. The creative and rational fingering methods for children are suggested, for fingering is notated in Prokofiev's manuscript. Additionally, Prokofiev's musical expression is rediscovered. In playing piano, using an appropriate fingering enables the free movement of hand and smooth performance. The fingers has the biggest influence on fingering. and each finger has different physiological structures and functions. Therefore, the selection of fingering with considering each finger's characteristics, strong and weak points in necessary to exercise a precise, skillful technique. In this study, general fingering was suggested according to techniques such as scale, interval, repeated notes, octave and arpeggio. And fingering of these techniques were studied with Prokofiev's sonatas. And a comparative analysis on various fingerings of the musicians presented in several editions was made based on fingering according to general techniques to discover the features of fingering in Prokofiev's music. As a result, the use of chromatic and whole-tone scale progress, wide interval and dynamic rhythm, repeated notes reaching octave, arpeggio which use the thumb on black keyboards, glissando, a percussion's effect was seen in his piano sonatas. from this, it could be concluded that Prokofiev applied a flexible use of fingering as well as basic fingering structures to his piano sonatas. Such characteristics can be seen in his music piece 「Music for Children, Op. 65」 which was composed for educational purposes. The fingering found characteristics in this piece are as below. At first, Prokofiev expressed lyricism and unique coloring by using melodies with various scales. In the 5th meter of first music 「morning」 chromatic progress is shown in the left hand. This can be performed with general fingering in which the thumb is changed frequently or play using fingers as order of hands in the case of fast progression. Second, Prokofiev frequently used wide skipping progress on melody line. For example, short fingers go under long fingers or wide skip, and a sudden skip for black keyboards, or skipping interval after playing piano's black keyboards with thumb occur. Besides these, difficult and unusual fingerings, which are widening fingers or crossing fingers up and down freely, are also applied. Third, in playing repeated notes, it is played to change the fingers at repeating position with the conventional principle of changing fingers is applied. In the playing ostinato of the first music 「morning」 repeated notes are shown. This is played with change of finger's numbers as 5→1, 4→5, 2→3, 1→2. Fourth, Prokofiev stressed the use of piano as a percussion instrument by using tone-cluster techniques. In such passage five fingers are used most effectively and neighboring fingers are used in assistant. For example, in meters 1-8 of the 8th music 「The Rain and The Rainbow」 tone-cluster chord is used remarkably. In this, a mass of sounds is played with neighboring fingers. And when playing 3 or 4 sounds at the same time, it is played bending knuckles of similar lengthy fingers by using fingerings of 234 or 2345. Fifth, Prokofiev used the critical passage in which both hands' cross each other. This progress select the fingering which stress superior part to both hands' melodies progress. When both hands cross at closing positions, They should not to be collide with each other or interrupt musical progressing. Examples of crossing both hands' part can be found in the 5th meter of the first music 「Morning」. In conclusion, the most ideal fingering is one that suits musical interconnection considering structural properties of boards and physiological aspects of hands. The appropriate fingering which is the basis on technique must be the principle dependent on each finger's unique functions and defects. And This is creative and elastic one considering differences among individual. Especially, because children's fingers are not fully developed yet, careful instruction of teaching must be studied consistently. 「Music for Children, Op. 65」is expected to have an educational effect on students who are in a stage previous stage to studying large scale like sonata or students who study 20th century piano music. In this aspect, this study re-establishes the fingering system of piano music and enables teachers to provide Children with the ability to discover what fingering is most effective for them.
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