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음악감수성 개발을 위한 유아기의 듣기지도 방법에 관한 연구

Title
음악감수성 개발을 위한 유아기의 듣기지도 방법에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on teaching technique for listening in develop early childhood's musical sensitivity
Authors
장길자
Issue Date
1997
Department/Major
교육대학원 음악교육전공
Keywords
음악감수성유아기듣기지도
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
음악에 있어서 듣는 기술은 모든 음악 활동의 기본이 되는 것이다. 감상활동은 물론 기악, 연주, 가창, 창작등 모든 음악적 활동에서 중요한 위치를 차지한다. 본 연구는 유아들에게 쉽고 자연스럽게 듣는 기술을 향상시켜 음악 감수성을 개발하기 위한 유아음악교육의 실제적인 방법을 제시한 것이다. 따라서 본 연구의 목적은 현장에서 교사나 부모가 유아에게 듣는기술을 향상시켜 음악감수성을 풍부하게 하는데 도움을 주고자 한다. 아울러 여러 문헌을 통하여 듣는 기술과 음악감수성의 관계를 살펴보고 이를 토대로 유아기의 듣는 기술 향상을 위한 실제적인 방법을 다음과 같이 제시하였다. 첫째, 다양한 소리이 근원을 접할 수 있는 기회를 주고 또한 여러가지 소리를 만들어보고, 들어 봄으로써 각각의 소리의 특징과 느낌을 경험할 수 있는 기회를 유아들에게 제공하여 교육하는 음빛깔(Timbre)을 통한 듣기지도 방법이다. 둘째, 소리를 듣고 높은 소리인지 낮은 소리인지를 구별하고, 들은 소리와 같은 높이의 소리를 내보게하고, 또 다른 소리와 비교하여 높은 음인지, 낮은 음인지, 같은 음인지를 구별하고 비교 나열 할 수 있게 교육하는 높낮이(Pitch)를 통한 듣기지도 방법이다. 셋째, 소리의 세고 여림을 유아들의 주변에서 나는 소리를 찾아 경험하게 하고, 구별하게 하며 그 느낌을 표현할 수 있게 교육하는 셈, 여림(Dynamics)를 통한 듣기지도 방법이다. 넷째, 유아들의 일상적인 언어에서 나타나는 장, 단을 활용하여 음악의 리듬과 연관시키고 빠른 소리와 느린 소리를 구별하고, 또 만들어 보고, 그 느낌을 표현할 수 있게 교육하는 길고 짧음(Rhythm)을 통한 듣기지도 방법이다. 끝으로, 계이름을 유아들이 그들의 모국어를 배우는 것처럼 단순히 듣는 것만으로 무의식적으로 모방, 암기하게하여 자연스럽고 어렵지 않게 교육하는 계명암창(Solfege)을 통한 듣기지도 방법이다. 음악감수성이란 타고나는 선천적인 요소도 있지만 교육에 의한 환경적 요소 또한 아주 중요하다 음악감수성 개발을 위한 환경적 요소중 듣기 훈련은 가장중요한 것이며 이 듣는 기술은 교육에 의하여 그 능력을 신장 시킬 수 있다. 따라서 음악감수성 개발을 위한 듣기기술 향상 지도는 무엇보다도 우선 청감각이 완성되는 유아기에 이루어져야 하며 제시 된 5가지 방법을 통해서 현장에 있는 부모나 교사가 효율적으로 활용하기를 기대한다.;The purpose of this study is to propose some ideas on teaching techniques for listening to develop early childhood musical sensitivity. Developing ability to hear sound that is, developing 'musical ears' for musical melody and internalizing it are very significant task in music education. To this end, this writer researched the meaning of musical sensitivity from various literatures and also tried to find out level of importance of listening to develop ability to hear sounds along with special features of progress in musical capacity of early childhood. And the following conclusions were drawn as a result by dividing teaching techniques for listening to hear sound during early childhood period for the purpose of developing musical sensitivity into 5 types which include teaching by making children recite musical scales from memory, teaching by colors for sound, teaching by low and high pitch of sounds, teaching by strength or weakness of sound and teaching by the length of sound: First, musical sensitivity is a product from combination of inborn potentiality and environmental factors postnatally developed and in particular it can be ascertained that training before the age of 10 is a decisive factor for development or underdevelopment of musical sensitivity for the person concerned. The meaning of musical sensitivity is defined as musical ability or musical talent, musicality, or musical aptitude etc. or in similar terms. For this reason musical sensitivity which is a capacity for accepting aethestical content of music well and understanding its value is primary ability essential for musical education. Second, the result of studying characteristics of progress in development of senses for the early childhood showed that auditory sense is the sense most advanced in development among 5 senses of a person. Such auditory sense is most sensitive during the age bracket of 3-6 years old and when a person becomes 6 years old he or she has an auditory sense almost equal to that of an adult. It is also confirmed that rapid development of senses for detecting level of sound or perceiving rhythms is attined during the period from early childhood to early childhood. In connection with studying musical ability to hear sound which is a source for producing all types of musical experience is most essential element in musical education and becomes its foundation accordingly development of auditory sense should be realized during early childhood period. It is because this is the period most important for listning to develop ability hearing sound. Third, the result of studying relationship between ability to hear sound and musical sensitivity showed that both of them have very close mutual relationship. Because musical sensitivity means accepting music well and reacting in a refined way and accepting music means 'accepting sound which is primary elements for music' and accepting sound and reacting to it mean auditory ability (ability to hear sound). Accordingly to accept music well it is vital to have 'musical ears' (ability to hear sound) and these 'musical ears' are first step for receiving music well and reacting to it and developing musical sensitivity. Fourth, in connection with development of musical sensitivity it has been discovered that training early childhood to develop ability to hear sound during early childhood period is the first step to take. To this end as methods for improving ability to hear sound this write proposed reciting musical scale from memory and rhythm words. Reciting musical scale from memory is similar in context to language education of early childhood thus they learn names of musical scale unconsciously hence enabling early childhood to foster basic ability to develop ears to hear short and long sounds by taking advantage of long or short rhythm appearing daily talks of early childhood by linking it to musical rhythm. Apart from above mentioned it is possible to improve early childhood ability to hear sound without much difficulty and with interest by training them with variety of sound of nature, tools and through sounds produced directly from early childhood and by training them for fostering basic ability to hear sound by strength or weakness and colors of sound. In consequence early childhood who develop 'musical ears' will be made to love and enjoy music throughout their lifetime and shall grow as a person rich in musical sensitivity.
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