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유아의 공정한 分配와 平等개념에 관한 연구

Title
유아의 공정한 分配와 平等개념에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) study on the impartial distribution of child and equal conception
Authors
전영순
Issue Date
1989
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공유아교육분야
Keywords
유아공정분배평등개념
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 연구는 만 4∼7세 유아들의 正義 개념에 나타나는 공정한 분배와 평등에 대해 알아보는 데 그 목적이 있다. 구체적인 연구 문제는 다음과 같다. 1. 유아의 正義 개념은 연령 및 성별에 따라 차이가 있는가? 2, 실제 상황에서 대상에 따른 분배 기준은 연령 및 성별에 따라 차이기 있는가? 본 연구의 대상은 서울시 은평구에 위치한 2개 유치원과 국민학교에 다니는 만 4∼7세 유아 168명이며, 이들의 사회·경제적 수준은 중류에 속한다, 연구에 사용된 正義 개념에 대한 도구는 Piaget의 연구에서 제안한 이야기 자료를 이용하였고. 실제 상황에서 공정한 분배 결정에 대한 대상 기준은 Damon이 제안한 도구를 수정 ·적용하였다. 조사된 자료들은 연령·성별의 빈도 및 백분율로 나타냈으며 x^(2) 검증하였다. 본 연구 문제에 대한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 유아의 正義 개념은 연령에 딸 유의한(P〈.01)차이가 나타났으나 성별에 따라서는 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 유아의 正義 개념에 대한 공정한 분배 正義 보상과 처벌은 연령이 낮을수록 높게 나타났으면 연령이 높을수록 평등은 증가하였다. 성별에 따른 正義 개념에 대한 복종은 남·여아 모두 평등보다 보상에 대해 높게 나타났다. 그리고 남아의 경우는 연령과 상관없이 보상에 높게 반응했으나 여아는 연령이 높을수록 보상에 반응하는 비율이 낮았다. 正義 개념에 대한 나눔은 남·여아 모두 평등이 처벌보다 높게 나타났다. 그러나 연령이 높을수록 처벌에 대해 평등보다 높게 반응했으며 여아는 처벌보다는 평등에 대해 높게 반응했다. 대상에 대한 正義 개념은 연령이 높을수록 처벌은 감소하고 평등은 증가하였으나 남아는 동등한 비율로 나타난 반면 여아는 평등에 대해 높게 반응하였다. 2. 실제 상황에서 대상에 대한 분배는 기준은 연령 및 성별에 따라 유의한 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 실제 상황에서 유아의 분배 기준을 '훌륭하다', '키가 크다', '동생', '자신'의 4가지로 구분하여 보상에 대한 분배 결정을 조사한 결과. 5세는 자기 중심적인 분배를 한 데 반해, 6세는 목걸이를 훌륭하게 만들어 교사에게 선물한 친구에게 분배하였다. 그리고 7세는 여아의 경우 동생에게 가장 많이 분배했으나 남아는 그들 자신에게 높은 분배 결정을 하였다. 4가지 항목 중 유아의 반응이 가장 높게 나타난 항목은 동생에게 분배 결정한 항목이다. 또한 실제 상황에서 성별에 대한 분배 결정은 남·여아 모두 여성에 대해 높은 비율을 나타냈다. 그리고 남아는 연령이 낮을수록 남성에게 높은 분배 결정을 내렸으나 연령이 높을수록 남성으로부터 여성에게 분배 결정을 하는 경향이 있었다. 이와는 대조적으로 여아는 연령과는 상관없이 모두 여성에게 높은 분배 결정을 내린다.;This study is aimed at examining the impartial distribution and the equality appeared in a concept of justice for the child ranging between 4 years old and 7 years old. Concrete problems for the study are given as follows: 1 . Is there any difference in the concept of justice for child according to their age and sex distinction? 2. Is there any difference in the criteria of distribution conformed with the subjects in an actual situation according to age and sex distinction? The subjects of this study were applied to 168 child aged from 4 years to 7 years old who attend at two kindergarten and elementary school located in Eunpyung-ku, Seoul, and their socioeconomic levels belong to middle class family. The instruments used for the concept of justice were applied to the story data proposed in the study of Piaget, and the sujects criteria for the decision of impartial distribution in the concept of justice was both revised and applied as to the instruments proposed by Damon. The data surveyed were appeared in the frequency by age, sex and percentage and was x^(2) varified. The results pertaining to the problems for this study were revealed as follows: 1. Though the concept of justice for child were appeared with ' the significant (P<0.1) difference according to their age, the significant difference by sex was not discovered. As for the compensation and the punishment to the justice of impartial distribution towards the justice concept for child the lower their ages were, the higher these revealed, while the older their ages were, the more the equality increased. In addition, as for the case of boys, the compensation was more highly responded irrelative of age, while the compensation was revealed to have gradually decreased as the ages of girls would increase. With regard to the share for the concept of justice, their concepts toward equality were more highly revealed than that of punishment among all the boys and the girls regard- less of sex, while the boys responded more. highly to the punishment than the equality, and the girls were, unlike the boys, more highly responded to the equality than the punishment. As for the concept of justice to the subjects, the older their ages would be, the lower the punishment was decreased and the equality was increased, but the boys .were responded at equal proportion, while the girls were highly responded to the equality. 2. The criteria of distribution for the subjects in an actual situation were revealed as no significant difference according to age and sex distinction. By classifying the criteria of distribution for child in an actual situation into 4 items including such as "Excellent or most", "biggest," "My younger brother, or younger sister" and "Self", as the result of surveying the decision of shares for compensation, 5-year-old children made the shares in the way with emphasis on self-centeredness, and a 6-year-old child distributed a share to a friend who was known to have given a necklace to a teacher after skillfully making it. Further, in case of a 7-year-old girl, though she distributed a share most highly to her sister, a boy decided a high rate of distribution for themselves. The item to which the response of child was most highly emerged among the four items was applicable to the case a girl decided to give a share to her younger sister. In addition, as for the decision of distribution by sex in an actual situation, through the result of examining the responses of child whether to give a share for male or to distribute for female was found as the higher rate given to distribute for female was found as the higher rate given to female. Although it was revealed that the younger the boys' age would be, they decided to give a high share with the male as identical as the sex of themselves, the male wholse age seemed to be gradually getting older decided to give a share to the female. In contrast with this fact, it was known that the girls, irrespective of their ages, decided t o give a high share to the female whose sex was as same as the sex belonging to all of themselves.
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