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社會階層背景에 따른 家庭環境이 學業成績에 미치는 영향

Title
社會階層背景에 따른 家庭環境이 學業成績에 미치는 영향
Other Titles
PARENT'S SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THEIR STUDENTS
Authors
金眞英
Issue Date
1986
Department/Major
교육대학원 일반사회교육전공
Keywords
사회계층배경가정환경학업성적일반사회교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Every man and woman is bound to be born in a society. His accomplishments of a variety of knowledge and skills and the dement of his personality are largely determined by social interations he enjoys with others. From his birth onward, he begins to establish basic interactions with his parents. Furthermore, a firm sense of personal love and authority is created by his parents Ultimately, he imitates them and internalizes their value orientations. In the course of his psychosocial development , the socioeconomic status of his parents is generally believed to have a significant influence on the development of his basic intelligence and emotional state. A number of studies documented also suggest that environmental and psychological variables i n the family have a significant effect incultivating intelligence and emotion. It is further believed that his school performance is affected by both some environmental and socioeconomic variables. By providing relevant data regarding the relationship between academic achievement and home environment, this research attempts to suggest some guidelines that will positively influence the home environment and to awaken the importance of parental teaching that may enhance academic attainment of the students. A wide variety of home environments which are formed by socio- economic level of the parents can adequately be divided into two main categories: Status environment and process environment. The word "status environment" used here refers to a systematized state of external conditions and stimuli given to the students In short , it implies a static aspect of home environment. On the other hand, "process environment" here is defined as an environment which is observed in an interplay of external stimuli and the students. In other words, it implies a dynamic and pshchological aspect of home environment. Two main issues studied that invited my interest were the relationship between academic accomplishment and status environment of the family and the relationship between academic performance and process environment of the family ( i.e. child-rearing practice of the parents). It should be noted that "status environment" includes the educational level of the parents, their occupation , home environment, family atmosphere, recreational facilities , and their monthly income. In order to obtain my data , a typical questionnaire menthod was employed. With respect to the subjects involved, a total of eight hundred forty students in Seoul representative of every social class were randomly selected from a number of middle schools and high schools. The results gathered can adequately be summarized as follows. First , a close inspection of my data suggests that there is a close relationship between status environment and school performance. In other words, the students of the parents with high socioeconomic status demonstrated higher school performance than did the matched smaple with their parents in the lower class. Secondly, my data insinuate that there is a quite significant realtionship between process environment and school achievement. It was found that parental teaching has a significant effect in enhancing or jeopardizing the school performance of the students Another finding that deserves particular attention is that methods of materanl child rearing produced a more significant difference. Thirdly, a close survey of my data indicates that academic performance of the students becomes less affected by the socioeconomic level of the parents as they move into the high school age. One possible explanation for this trend in that , as years go by, they are likely to be more influenced by some other actors that include their peer groups, teachers, and social environments.;人間은 누구나 社會 안에서 태어나며 그 속에서 다른 사람들과의 相互作用을 함으로써, 여러가지의 知識과 技術을 습득하고 入格을 陶冶해 나간다. 人間은 태어나자 곧 父母와 최초의 相互作用을 시작한다. 그리하여 父母에게서 사랑과 권위를 경험하며 그들의 행동을 모방하고, 그들의 價値觀을 內面化한다. 人間의 發達過程에 있어서 개인의 知的·情意的 行動은 그 個人이 背景變因으로 가지고 있는 父母의 社會經濟的 地位, 즉 社會階層의 水準과 家庭에서 일어나는 여러가지 心理的 環境變因에 의해서 그 基本的 類型이나 水準이 決定되며, 또 이것이 學校에서의 學業成績에도 영향을 주고 있다는 것이 一般的인 견해로 되어 있다. 따라서 本 硏究는 父母의 社會階層背景에 따른 家庭環境과 學業成績과의 관련성에 관한 資料를 제공하므로써 家庭의 環境을 보다 敎育的으로 바람직한 방향으로 이끌고, 父母의 子女敎育에 대한 인식을 새롭게 하여 가정학습을 통한 子女의 學力伸張에 도움을 주고자 함을 목적으로 한다. 本 硏究에서는 父母의 社會階層背景에 따른 家庭環境의 諸變因을 家庭의 地位環境과 作用環境으로 분류하고, 地位環境은 個人에게 作用하는 外的條件과 刺戟이 體制化되어 있는 狀態, 즉 家庭環境의 靜的狀態로 規定하며, 作用環境은 그와 같은 條件과 刺戟 및 組織化된 體制가 개인과의 상호작용에서 관찰될 수 있는 환경, 즉 家庭環境의 動的·心理的 狀態로 規定하여 이들 環境變因과 子女의 學業成績과의 關係를 分析한다. 本 硏究의 구체적인 문제는 첫째, 家庭의 地位環境(父母의 敎育水準, 職業, 居住地環境, 家屋實態, 文化施設, 月所得)과 學業成績과의 관계를 분석하고 둘째, 家庭의 作用環境(父母의 養育態度)과 學業成續과의 관계를 分析하려는 것이다. 이러한 硏究問題를 遂行하기 위하여 서울市內에 居住하고 있는 初 中·高校 중에서 비교적 社會階層이 고르게 분포되었으리라 예상되는 學校의 學生 840名을 亂選標集하여 質問紙法(Questionnaire Method)으로 作成·調査하였고, 그 結果는 다음과 같다. 첫째,家庭의 地位環境과 學業成績과의 관계에서는 상당히 有意한 差를 나타내어, 地位環境의 水準에 따라 學業成績의 높고 낮음이 결정되는 비교적 正的인 관계를 갖는 경향을 파악할 수 있었다. 둘째, 家庭의 作用環境과 學業成績과의 관계에서는 비교적 有意란 差異를 나타내어, 父母가 子女敎育에 대해 미치는 영향이 매우 크다는 것을 알 수 있었으며 특히 어머니의 敎育態度의 영향이 더 의미있는 差를 나타냄으로써 女性敎育의 중요성을 깨달을 수 있었다. 세째, 父母의 社會階層背景에 따른 家庭環境이 學業成績에 미치는 영향은 學生의 成長에 따라서 점차 감소하는 경향이 있는데, 이는 敎育水準이 높아짐에 따라 家庭外的 環境, 즉 동료집단이나 교사, 그외 의 社會環境에서 더 많은 영향을 받기 때문이라고 할 수 있다.
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