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「敎育立國詔書」에 關한 硏究

Title
「敎育立國詔書」에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Rotal Doctrine for the Establishment of a State on the Basis of the Education
Authors
李京姬
Issue Date
1994
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
Keywords
교육입국조서Education사회과교육역사교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
It is the wellknown fact that the Society under Chosun Dynasty in the end of 19th century was a great transition period as required for a greater innovation than ever since. Politically, the Chosun society that has been in peace under the oriental order was confronted with the pressure by the western powers to open a port. And all fields of the society was in chaos for politics, economy, education and culture. In addition, the confrontation and antagonism among the social classes were severe and therefore, the state power was extremely weakened. Due to such a social chaos, internally, the farmers' rebellion was risen and the Oriental Religion was constituted in the hardship of people's livelihood by exploitation of the ruling class and the sphere of western learnings were expanded and the practical science thought was brought forth and the absoluteness of Chu-tzu science which was ideology of feudalistic ruling system become to swinging. In the external relations the capitalistic European powers have launched to Asia in seeking of the selling market and the source of raw material and they and Japan focused their advancement to Korea and thereby existence of the feudalistic system itself was endangered by reaction of pressure by the foreign influence. Internally and externally the modern society of Korea which has become acute was required constitution of national thought to take in charge of historical subjectivity. Under such historic stage the country was faced to the formation of new thought that responds to invasion of the capitalistic powers and the ideological impact by western science. The modern education was assigned the great mission to form and implement thought of national subjectivity under such times and the realization thereof was expressed as the education system or the content of education. However, the modern times of Korea had the Confucian thought and the root of the tradition was too deep. Since Chosun kingdom had established (1392) the concerns about by education was Chu-tzu science (a sect of Confucianism) as its leadership ideology and was regarded as a heretic if one distorted out of it even a bit. Under the situation to build and settle down the modern school which is the western system has contained many problems to be solved. The modern school was begun to establish after the door toward the world was opened by entering into the Ganghwa-island Treaty In 1876 with Japan (of course the Treaty was not made by own will of Chosun but forced to enter by Japan). Since therefore, in this study I tried to transfer the thought to civilization from the practical science of 18th century that is to say the idea of opening toward the outside world of which we can say the traditional source of civilization thought as the building spirit of modern school in this country in order to broaden more the field of vision of the view of education. However, after the invasion of militaristic Japan was started the axis of modern education was turned to patriotism from practical science not allow to stay with the practical science alone for civilization of the axis of thought the modern educational movement. With the opening of Wonsan port in 1893 the Wonsan Schoolhouse was built by donation of Wonsan residents and by establishment of educational park by the Government, the first modern school was established in Korea. Based upon the educational reformation under the political reformation of 1894, the primary school ordinance was promulgated by the Government after promulgation of the royal doctrine for building country by the education by King Kojong in 1895 and by begun to establish modern schools they provided an epoch-making moment to establish the modem school system. This study therefore, focused to look the practical science which was the traditional origin of the civilization thought and the civilization thought that was prime stream of modern nationalism in clarifying the learnings foundation spirit of the modem school which was begun in 1880's and looked back the forming process of modem education and reformation of the educational administrative organization and, in Chapter Ⅲ I described for background, content of the royal doctrine promulgated for building state by education being a blasting fuse to open the modern education of Korea and, in Chapter Ⅳ I also have described the royal doctrine for building state by education, the government science, the relationship with private sector education, the impact affected to purport of building the private sector education. I would also like to check the modem historic significance the royal doctrine has had and the intent of state to establish new educational tradition of Korea by the stream of thinking for modern education by sublation of the traditional Chu-tzu educational tradition and especially, the advocacy that will save the country by the education was the endeavor by state tried to solve the imminent situation at that time together with the educational historic significance the royal doctrine for building the state by education had.;19세기 후반 朝鮮 社會는 그 이전의 어느 서기보다도 큰 변혁에 요구되어지던 大轉換期에 속함은 주지의 사실이다. 이 시기는 東洋的 秩序에서 안주하던 조선사회가 外的으로는 자본주의로 무장한 歐美列强이 상품 판매 시장과 원로 공급지를 구하러 아시아에 진출하게 피고 그리하여 외세의 압력으로 작용함으로써 "西勢東漸"이라는 서구열강의 開港壓力에 직면해 있었고 사회가 혼란하며 국민 계층간의 대립과 반목이 격화되었으며 국력이 극도로 쇠약한 시대이었다. 사회적 혼란으로 인하며 국내적으로는 지배층의 착취에 의한 민생고 속에서 농민의 반란이 일어나고 이를 극복하기 위해 實學思想이 대두되고 東學에 형성되었으며, 西學의 세력이 확장되어 봉건지배체제의 이념인 朱子學의 절대성이 흔들리게 되어 封建體制 자체의 存立이 위태롭게 되었다. 국내외적으로 어려움에 당면한 근대의 한국사회는 그 어려움을 극복하고 해결해 나갈 역사의 主體와 국민적인 사상의 성립이 요구되었다. 그리하여 사상계에서는 안으로는 實學思想과 농민반란을 수용하고 밖으로는 資本主義 列强의 침입과 西學의 사상적 영향에 대응하는 새로운 사상의 형성을 보게되었다. 近代敎育은 이러한 시대적 분위기 속에서 民族主體思想을 형성하고 실천 하여야 할 중대한 임무를 부여 받았고 그 실현이 교육제도로서 또는 교육 내용으로서 표출되었다. 그러나 儒敎的 思想과 그 전통의 뿌리는 너무 깊었다. 朝鮮이 건국된(1392) 이래 교육의 관심은 주자학으로써 지도이념을 삼아 조금에라도 이에 어긋나면 斯文亂賊으로 몰아 이단시하는 상황이었다. 이리한 풍조는 이 시기에 이르러서도 강하게 지속되고 있었다. 이러한 상황 아래에 近代 學校를 설립·정착시키는 것은 쉽지 않은 일이었다. 近代 學校는 1876년 일본과의 江華島條約을 체결함으로써 세계로 향한 문호가 개방되고 (물론 江華島條約은 한국인의 자의에 의하여 이루어진 것이 아니라 일본에 의하여 강요된 것이다. 그러기에 본 연구에서는 敎育史觀의 시야를 보다 넓히기 위하여 우리나라 近代學校의 건학정신을 18세기의 <實學>으로부터 <開化>에로의 思想的 전환을 시도해 보았다. 그러나 軍國일본적 침략이 들어서면서 부터 근대교육운동은 그 思想軸을 開化를 위한 實學에만 머물러 있게 하지 않고 그 軸을 <實學>으로부터 <愛國>으로 轉回하기에 이른다), 1883년 元山浦의 개항과 더불어 원산 주민의 성금으로 元山學舍가 설립되고, 政府에 의해 育英公院을 설립함으로써 한국에 최초의 근대학교가 설립되었다. 그리고 1894년 甲午改革에 의한 교육개혁을 바탕으로 1895년 고종이 敎育立國詔書를 반포하기에 이르렀고, 이어서 政府에 의하여 한성사범학교관제, 외국어학교관제, 小學校令이 公布되고 근대학교가 설립되기 시작함으로써 근대의 학교제도가 점차 마련되어 갔다. 따라서 본 연구의 전개는 다음과 같다. 먼저 근대교육의 성립기반을 敎育立國詔書와 관련지어 이해하기 위해 논지를 전개하면서 구체적으로 1880년대부터 시작된 근대학교의 건학정신과 그 성격을 밝히며, 開化思想의 사상적 연원인 實學과 근대 민족주의의 원류인 開化思想과의 연계성을 살피는데 초점을 두었고 개화정책과 함께 초기에 시행된 근대교육의 형성과정과 敎育行政機構의 개혁을 구체적으로 살펴보고, Ⅲ장에서는 한국 近代敎育을 본격적으로 선언한 敎育立國讀書의 반포의 背景, 內容, 敎育思想 등에 관해서, Ⅳ장에서는 敎育立國詔書의 이념이 구현되는 과정을 官學·私學敎育과의 관계와 후의 私學建立 趣旨에 미친 영향 등을 고찰해 보고자 한다. 끝으로 敎育立國詔書가 지니는 현대사적 의의와, 종래의 주자학적 교육전통을 지양하고 근대교육의 사조에 의한 새로운 한국의 교육전통을 수립하기 위한 국가의 의도와 특히 교육으로 나라를 구하겠다는 제창속에서 당시의 절박한 시대상을 타개하고자 하는 국가의 노력과 함께 敎育史的 意義를 규명하였다.
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