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강산제 심청가 전승 양상 연구

Title
강산제 심청가 전승 양상 연구
Other Titles
A Study on the Aspect of Transmission of Sim Cheong Ga : with a focus on Daemok of Sim Cheong falling in the water
Authors
석지연
Issue Date
2022
Department/Major
대학원 음악학부
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
강영근
Abstract
본 논문은 ‘심청이 물에 빠지는 대목’을 중심으로 강산제 <심청가>의 전승자인 정권진·성창순·성우향·조상현 네 명창의 소리를 비교 분석하여 각 명창별 음악적 특징을 살펴보고자 하였다. 이를 위하여 사설·선법 및 음역·붙임새·시김새로 나누어 비교 분석하였다. 각 대목별 사설을 비교 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 대목별 각 명창의 사설은 90%이상 동일하게 나타난다. ‘범피중류’는 93%, ‘한 곳을 당도하니’는 94%, ‘배의밤이’ 대목은 95%가 동일함을 확인하였다. ‘인당수에 당도’·‘북을 두리둥’·‘심청이 거동봐라’ 대목 또한 각각 93%, 91%, 91%로 6대목 모두 90%이상 동일한 사설을 공유하고 있음을 알 수 있다. 동일한 사설 가운데 특히나 정권진과 성우향의 사설은 ‘범피중류’를 제외한 모든 대목에서 96~98%가량 사설을 공유하고 있어 두 명창의 사설이 유사함을 확인하였다. 둘째, 특정 대목에 있어 성창순과 조상현의 사설 진행이 각각 다름을 알 수 있다. 성창순의 경우 ‘한 곳에 당도하니’ 대목에서 정권진·성우향·조상현에 비하여 사설이 짧게 구성되어 있으며, 조상현의 경우 ‘심청이 거동봐라’ 대목에서 정권진·성창순·성우향과는 사설의 진행이 다름을 확인하였다. 각 명창별 선법 및 음역을 비교 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 대목을 구성하는 선법은 본청은 각각 차이가 나타나나 각 명창이 부르는 대목에 따라 우조·평조·계면조가 조금씩 달리 구성됨을 확인할 수 있다. 둘째, 음역의 경우 장단 및 대목·인물 별로 다르게 나타나나 대부분 2~3옥타브 내외로 음이 구성되어 있음을 확인하였으며, 출현음의 경우 각 옥타브 내에서 적게는 9음, 많게는 21음까지 다양하게 나타난다. 장단별로 네 명창의 붙임새를 비교 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 붙임새의 활용 비율에 있어 네 명창이 유사하다. 각 명창별 붙임의 유형에 나타난 장단 수는 다르게 나타나나 이를 백분율로 도출한 결과 유형별 활용 비율은 유사함을 확인하였다. 둘째, 붙임새의 활용에 있어 각 명창의 특징이 나타난다. 진양 장단의 붙임새 활용의 경우 정권진은 타명창과 밀붙임·당겨붙임의 활용 비율이 반대되어 붙임새의 활용에 있어 차이가 있다. 중모리의 경우 정권진·성창순·성우향에게 나타나지 않는 ‘도섭’이 조상현에게서만 확인 되었으며, 정권진의 경우 붙임새의 활용이 비교적 단순하게 구성되어 있음을 확인하였다. 휘모리의 경우 ‘북을 두리둥’ 대목은 성창순이, ‘심청이 거동봐라’대목은 정권진의 붙임새가 단조롭게 구성되어 있었으며, 엇모리의 경우 앞의 진양과 중모리장단과는 달리 정권진이 가장 많은 유형의 붙임새를 활용하여 붙임새의 구성이 다채롭게 나타났다. 각 명창별 시김새를 비교 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 시김새의 종류로는 11가지로 나타난다. 그 중 1음절 3~4음이 주를 이루나 이 외의 1음절 10~14음의 시김새도 확인 가능하다. 둘째, 장단별 시김새의 활용은 붙임새에 영향을 받는다. 다양한 시김새가 활용되나 이는 단독으로 활용되는 것이 아닌 붙임새의 유형에 따른 활용 양상과 관계가 있음을 확인하였다. 셋째, 다른 명창들에 비하여 정권진의 시김새 구성이 비교적 단순하다. 장단의 빠르기가 느려 시김새의 활용이 활발히 나타나는 진양·중모리 장단에 해당되는 ‘범피중류’·‘배의밤이’·‘한 곳을 당도하니’ 대목에서 성창순·성우향·조상현의 시김새 활용 횟수가 정권진의 시김새 활용 횟수에 비하여 적게는 1.5배에서 많게는 2.5배가량 많음을 확인하였다. 시김새 활용 횟수가 타 명창에 비해 적은 것으로 볼 때 정권진의 시김새 구성이 단조롭다 할 수 있다. 마지막으로 동일한 사설을 공유한다 하더라도 시김새 활용은 동일하게 나타나지 않는다. 일부 사설에서 동일한 시김새의 활용이 확인 가능하나 이는 전체의 10% 이내로 극히 드물다. 이와 같이 ‘심청이 물에 빠지는 대목’을 정권진·성창순·성우향·조상현 창을 중심으로 사설·선법 및 음역·붙임새·시김새를 분석한 결과 네 명창 모두 각각의 더늠을 발전시켜 본인만의 소리세계를 만들었으나 스승에게 사사받은 기본 골격은 그대로 유지했음을 알 수 있었다. 본 고에서 연구한 강산제<심청가>의 각 명창별 특징의 비교를 통해 네 명창 모두 스승에게 사사받은 것을 그대로 모방하는 방식을 뛰어넘어 각 명창들이 가지고 있는 목성음이나 더늠을 연구 발전시켜 자신만의 소리를 구축하였음을 확인하였다. 이에 현재 활발히 전승되고 있는 강산제<심청가>를 전수 받은 한 사람으로서 강산제 <심청가>의 전승에 있어 이 연구가 작은 도움이 되길 기대하며 나아가 강산제에 대한 다각적인 연구가 지속적으로 이루어 지길 바란다.;This paper examines the singing method of Jeong Gweonjin, Seong Changsoon, Sung Woohyang and Cho Sanghyun and the major characteristics of each singer respectively by studying the traditional Korean music pansori. The examined pansori in question is where Simcheong dives into the sea in ‘Simcheongjeon’. In order to do so, this paper devoted chapter 3 on making comparisons of 6 different lyrics and narrations in which Simcheong falls into the sea and examining the overall story of the pansori Simcheongjeon. On chapter 4, this research focused on comparing and classifying the 6 different lyrics based on vocal range, mode, rhythm, butchimsae and sigimsae. The analysis on the lyrics of each singer is as follows. Firstly, Jeong Gweonjin’s lyrics had 71 lines, while Seong Changsoon, Seong Woohyang and Cho Sanghyun had 65, 68, and 64 lines respectively. Jeong Gweonjin’s lyrics showed the highest match-rate with the overall lyrics of Simcheongjeon(84%) and this shows that Jeong’s lyrics are more subtle compared to other singers. Also, the analysis shows that in the case of Jeong and Cho’s lyrics, there are additional contents while Seong and Sung does not. This shows that the lyrics vary based on the gender of the singer. Secondly, the analysis on the rhythm is as follows. Out of the 4 singers’ lyrics, 47 lines all have the same rhythm(65%). And there were 9 lines(12%) in which although they had similar rhythm, a difference in the speed existed. In contrast, there were 12 lines(17%) in which the name of the rhythm and its speed differed and a change in rhythm was observed in 4 lines except for the lyrics that Seong Changsoon sang. Thirdly, the comparison between the 6 lines about Simcheong falling into the sea shows a high similarity rate(90%) among the 4 singers’ lyrics. The ‘Beompijungryu’ shows 93% match rate, ‘Reaching one place; part shows 94%. And other lyrics all showed a match rate higher than 90%, showing that the 6 lines all share similar lyrics. Among the similar lyrics, Jeong Gweonjin and Sung Woohyang’s lyrics are almost identical to each other except for the ‘Beompijungryu’ part. The different cases were classified based on difference in the wording and the order of the lyrics. The use of different wordings were observed on Jeong’s lyrics on the ‘Reaching one place’ part. Jeong and Cho used the same lyrics and visa versa for Seong and Sung on the ‘Beating of the drums’ part. The difference in the order of lyrics were observed in the case of Jeong on the ‘Beating of the drums’ part. Also, the same similarity of order was found between Jeong and Cho and visa versa for Seong and Sung. This chapter focused on identifying the musical characteristics of each singer based on the singing method, octave, mode, and method of expression. Concerning, the singing method and octave, the following characteristics were observed. Firstly, Jeong and Sung used Ujo and Gyemyeonjo mode to give their singing a little change while Seong and Cho used only Gyemyeonjo mode on the Beompijungryu. Also, Seong’s vocal range was widest while Cho’s tone was the most various. This shows that based on the vocal, the Ujo, Pyeongjo and Gyemyeonjo may be differently placed. On the ‘Night on the ship’ part, only Seong used the Gyemyeonjo mode and the others used Ujo and Gyemyeonjo mode. Sung showed the widest vocal range from AA to e’ and the most various tone as well. Secondly, the 4 singers all used only Gyemyeonjo mode for ‘Reaching one place’ and Cho showed the widest vocal range and the most various tone. The other 3 singers showed similar vocal range and tone. Thirdly, only Jeong used Peyongjo and Gyemyeonjo for the line ‘beating of the drums’ while the rest used only Gyemyeonjo for the line ‘beating of the drums’ and ‘Look at Simcheong go’. For both lines, Seong’s vocal range was the widest while Sung had the narrowest vocal range. Also, Jeong had the most various tones compared to others. Lastly, the ‘Reaching the Indangsu’ part is generally a melancholy part where all 4 singers used the Gyemyeonjo mode and all showed similar tone and vocal range. The analysis based on the 4 singers’ butchimsae is as follows. Firstly, in the case of Beompijungryu, which uses the jinyang rhythm, all 4 singers use large rhythms for 70% of the song and use diagonal attachmet for 30%. The butchimsae most often used for large rhythms is minbutchim consisting of 2+2+2 form which rests at 5th or 6th rhythm and 2+4 form which does not. Both forms are often used but in the case of Sung, the number of first form usage exceeds twice the number of second form usage. In the case of diagonal attachment, Jeong uses both pulling/pushing attachment at a same rate. However, the other singers use the pushing attachment(more than 80%) more than pulling attachment. In the case of ‘Night on the ship’ the rate of large rhythms were more than 90% and in the case of pull attachment all 4 singers used 2+2+(2) and 2+4 form equally. In the case of diagonal attachment, the rhythm used was slower than that of ‘Beompijungryu’ by less than 10%. Secondly, the ‘Reaching one place’ and ‘Beating of the drum’ part both use large rhythm and diagonal attachment. For the ‘Reaching one place’ part, the percentage of large rhythm and diagonal attachment is 78% and 22% for Jeong, 63% and 37% for Seong, 61% and 39% for Sung and 66% and 34% for Cho, which shows that large rhythm is more often used. Also, the 4 singers mainly use the 2+2+2+2+2 form of butchimsae. Seong uses both push/pull attachment equally. But the other 3 singers use pull attachment more often. The ‘Beating of the drum’ part uses the 3+3+3+3 form more often and due to the speed of the rhythm, the usage of dosseup butchimsae is also high compared to other parts. Thirdly, in the case of ‘Look at Simcheong go’ part, Jeong and Sung use quick jajinmori rhythm while Seong and Cho use hwimori rhythm. Both rhythms are quick and all 4 singers use large rhythm and dosseup butchimsae only. Fourthly, the “Reaching the Indangsu’ part showed more than 70% of large rhythm use and all 4 singers used the 3·2 rhythm and 2·3 rhythm equally. Diagonal attachment use exceeded 20% and Jeong’s use of pull/push attachment was equal while the others preferred the push attachment. In conclusion, Jeong’s use of pull/push attachment ratio for jinyang rhythm is the opposite of the other singers. In the case of jungmori rhythm, Cho has dosseup that others do not possess. Also in the case of Jeong, his use of the butchimsae is simpler compared to others. In the case of Hwimori rhythm, Seong’s use of the butchimsae on ‘beating of the drum’ and Jeong’s ‘look at Simcheong go’ part was simply composed. In the case of the Eonmori rhythm, Jeong uses numerous variety of butchimsae. The analysis based on each singer’s sigimase is as follows. Firstly, there are 11 different kinds of sigimsae. They mostly consist of 3-4 notes per phrase but 10-14 notes per phrase are sometimes observed. Secondly, the use of sigimsae is influenced by the butchimsae. Various sigimsae are used but they are not used independently. Instead, it is heavily influenced by the variety of butchimsae and the method in which the butchimsae are used. Thirdly, Jeong’s sigimsae composition is simpler compared to others. In the case of ‘Beompijungryu’, ‘Night on the ship’ and ‘Reaching one place’ part, which uses Jungmori/Jinyang rhythm, the number of sigimsae use of the other 3 singers is 1.5-2.5 times that of Jeong. Based on the number of sigimsae use, Jeong’s sigimsae composition may be called simple in comparison. Lastly, the sigimsae use cannot be equal regardless of whether they share the same lyrics. This may be possible, but the possibility is less than 10%. Therefore, based on the classifications mentioned above, this research concluded that even if the 4 main singers sang the same Simcheongjeon, they all differ slightly because each singer used their original sound respectively.
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